Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

The System of the State Village Government of the Kazan Governorate in the Early 18th - the First Third of the 19th Centuries

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

The System of the State Village Government of the Kazan Governorate in the Early 18th - the First Third of the 19th Centuries

Article excerpt

Abstract

The importance of the research is determined by the essential character and necessity of studying the system of the local government of the state village of the Kazan Governorate for a more complete realizing of the political institutions of autocratic Russia. The article is aimed at the study of the state and functioning of the local government system of the Kazan Governorate state village at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. The leading method of the research is a complex approach based on the study of different kinds of sources. The research included considering social, economic and legal status of the state peasants in the structure of the rural population paying duty in the Kazan Governorate. The course of formation and the ways of evolution of this class are shown; the problems of land availability and the size of the paid duty are regarded. The structure, functions and scope of authority of the local state institutions and peasant self-government are studied, the professional and ethnic composition of the local administration is investigated, the role of senatorial inspections as an institute of the state control is shown. The effectiveness of the local government and court is analyzed, the problem of peasants' attitude to the authorities is considered; the protest of the state peasants against the feudal and administrative oppression was an essential part of this problem. The materials of the paper may be used in the preparation of the summarizing monographs on the agricultural history of the Middle Volga Region (Central Volga Region), in the teaching practice of universities in delivering lectures and practical classes, in creating special courses on the Tatarstan peasantry history and history of state institutions.

Keywords: Kazan Governorate, local authorities, state peasants

1. Introduction

The problems of studying the political institutions of autocratic Russia are among the important aims of the modern historical studies. Therefore, the local authorities, including the bodies of state peasantry government, are of great interest. The "state feudalism" policy in relation to the state peasantry was realized directly through the local governing bodies and court (Eroshkin, 1981). The study of the structure, organization and composition of the local administrative apparatus, mechanism of state institutions functioning, forms and methods of peasants management is an essential part of the investigation of the problem of the class essence of the Russian autocracy and its domestic policy of late feudalism (Zayonchkovsky, 1978).

In the context of the multiethnic character of the Middle Volga Region, the analysis of the state and activity of the administrative, operational and financial, police, and judicial bodies of Kazan Governorate is of special importance (Goncharenko, 1984).

Firstly, Kazan Governorate was a typical agricultural, agrarian region with a historically developed predominance of the state peasantry. In the activity of the local authorities and court, the problems of the state village were in the foreground. All this gives the opportunity to identify priorities in the agricultural policy of the autocracy in relation to the state peasants at the local level, to show the ways and methods of its realization in the concrete region, as part of the major and principal administrative subdivision of the Russian Empire - the governorate.

Secondly, Kazan Governorate, the state peasants, the representatives of the indigenous ethnic groups of the region (the Tatars, Chuvash, Mari, Mordva, Udmurt) made up the absolute majority of the population in the investigated period. The study of this problem using the example of Kazan Governorate gives the opportunity to identify both the common patterns and concrete historical peculiarities of the national policy in tsarist Russia.

2. Methodological Framework

2.1 Research Objectives

It was necessary to achieve the following objectives as part of the study:

1. …

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