Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Changes of Connotation in Borrowings

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Changes of Connotation in Borrowings

Article excerpt


The relevance of the article is justified by the fact that answering the question on typical ways of expressing connotation in borrowed words and their connection with the history and ethnos development the presented article fills the research gap in linguistics. The objective of the article is to summarize the comparative study of semantic (primarily connotative) evolution of two words 'orda' (Mongolian 'ordu' Knan's palace, headquarters) - 'ulus' borrowed from Mongolian. The principal method of the research involves semantic context analysis. The analysis consists of 3 stages. At the first stage the semantic analysis of the words in Russian National Corpus, precedent texts (proverbs, idioms, popular quotations etc.) and modern Russian dictionaries reveals the fixed connotations in the language and brings out stereotypical images in the Russian culture. The second stage focuses on Russians' individual perceptions of the words and summarizes the results of an associative experiment - respondents' reactions to the stimulus 'orda', 'ulus'. Thirdly, the semantic network analysis of the words performed on modern social media texts (chats and forums) reveals the typical semantic context of the words represented by collocations. Based on the principles of explanation, expansionism, functionalism and anthropocentrism as the main principles of modern linguistics paradigm the article might be of interest to linguists pursing research in semantics, students majoring in Linguistics and Cultural studies and teachers of Russian.

Keywords: ethnic identity, orda, ulus, borrowing, National Corpus, connotations

1. Introduction

1.1 Historical Background

On the territory of the modern Republic of Tatarstan the two ethne, Tatars and Russians, have been living together as enemies, rivals, neighbours and fellow-citizens since the IXth century when a Turkic nomadic tribe of Bulgars moved north from the steppes of the Azov region, settled in the Volga-Ural region and founded the Bulgar khanate (Fakhrutdinov, 1986; Shamiloglu, 1990). Later those tribes were absorbed by Genghis Khan's Golden Horde and became part of his army. Together with the advances of the army and expansion of the Horde they migrated to the west and invaded new territories. Finally all the Horde tribes came to be called Tatars/Tartars by Russians and Europeans and the period of Golden Horde dominance is nowadays regarded as the Tatar yoke/Tatar-Mongolian yoke (Halperin, 1982).

At its peak the territory of the Golden Horde spread from the Urals to the Carpathian Mountains, extending east deep into Siberia. The Horde was gradually turkified and islamized, especially under their greatest khan, z Beg (1313-41). The Turkic tribes concentrated on animal husbandry in the steppes, while their subject peoples, Russians, Mordvinians, Georgians, and Armenians, paid tribute. The epidemic of plague of 1346-47 marked the beginning of the Golden Horde's decline and disintegration. The Russian princes won a signal victory over the Horde general Mamai at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. Mamai's successor and rival, Tokhtamysh, sacked and burned Moscow in retaliation in 1382 and reestablished the Horde's dominion over the Russians. However, Tokhtamysh had his own power broken by his former ally Timur, who invaded the Horde's territory in 1395, destroyed settlements and deported most of the region's skilled craftsmen to Central Asia, thus depriving the Horde of its technological edge over resurgent Muscovy. In the 15th century the Horde disintegrated into several smaller khanates, the most important being those of the Crimea, Astrakhan, and Kazan. The last surviving remnant of the Golden Horde was destroyed by the Crimean Khan in 1502 (Khudyakov, 1923; Gumilev, 1992).

1.2 Status of the Problem

The latest changes in society such as globalization, westernization, glocalization, etc., brought a number of changes in Russian people's views and values. …

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