Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Universalization of the International Relations in the Context of Formation and Activity of the League of Nations

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Universalization of the International Relations in the Context of Formation and Activity of the League of Nations

Article excerpt

Abstract

The urgency of the problem under study is caused by the fact that in 2014 it had been 100 years from the moment of the beginning of the World War I, the war of an absolutely new type which put mankind on the edge of total disappearance on scales of victims and destructions. At the same time this war forced to change the character of international relations completely, having made them more open and directed to establishment of a settled dialogue. The article is directed to studying the role of the League of Nations in the processes of universalization of the international relations during the interwar period, its attempts to create the international political tools which would allow to remove completely or essentially the threat of a new war. The leading approach of the research of this problem is a system approach, as this approach allows when studying the evolution of the international organizations (including the Leagues of Nations) to use various scientific methods and techniques in complete, mutually supplementing and combining them. The main results of the research testify that World War I, being one of the greatest tragedies in the history, became at the same time the catalyst of the progressive political processes which put the foundation of a new world system, based on understanding of mutual dependence and aspiration to general safety. The most important instrument of providing the lasting post-war peace was urged to become the League of Nations. The materials of the article can be useful for preparation of educational, methodical and scientific literature and used also in the educational process as it contains theoretical information and set of empirical data on the problem of creation and functioning of the universal regulating international organizations on an example of the League of Nations.

Keywords: International relations, World War I, "Fourteen points", Versailles conference, the League of Nations, Wilson, Lloyd George, Clemenceau, Orlando, international organization

1. Introduction

The ideas of creation of the ideal international organization, urged to guarantee lasting peace and safety to the peoples, were repeatedly put forward by the representatives of political and philosophical thought. Thomas More, Hugo Grotius, Immanuel Kant are known for the reflections about qualitative essence of empires and possible ways of ensuring the international security (Ostrower, 1996). It was I. Kant, perhaps, who most clearly understood the logic of this development at the end of the XVIII century and drew conceptual conclusions: «The influence, which shakes each state in our part of the world so closely, exerting on other states so considerably that these states under the pressure of danger threatening them, though without the lawful basis, offer themselves as arbitration judges and thus from far away prepare for future great state association» (Kant, 1991).

As a rule, the projects of creation of the international integrated systems appeared during the most tensed moments of the world history, during multinational wars and conflicts. Thus an attempt to create the structure for maintenance a strong order on the European continent was carried out in 1814-1815 on the Vienna congress. Having agreed about convocation of regular conferences on the European stability, Holy Alliance created an essentially important precedent. At the same time it became the very first option of that «great political body» which was foreseen by Kant (Palmer & Colton, 1965). However the projects on creation of the regulating organizations on a global scale could not find practical application up to the XX century. The states of Europe continued developing imperial forms whereas they were to be audited sufficiently over the ocean. The topic of the European crisis turned into a discourse about the fall of the Empire and became entangled with the topic of the crisis of democracy and also the issues of the forms of consciousness and resistance generated by this crisis. …

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