Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

The Activity of the Kazan Governorate Nobility Self-Government in the Middle of the 19th - Early 20th Century

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

The Activity of the Kazan Governorate Nobility Self-Government in the Middle of the 19th - Early 20th Century

Article excerpt

Abstract

The importance of the research of the Kazan Governorate nobility self-government activity in the middle of the 19th - early 20th centuries is determined by the fact that the study of this issue gives the opportunity to define the scenarios of keeping the power in the hands of the nobility, as well as the domestic needs of the nobility who represented multifunctional institutions handling both the problems of their social class and the local administration issues. This research is supported by the system approach based upon the study of noble institutions as an integral whole, and all aspects of its activity are geared to the interests of the nobility. The article highlights the study of the Kazan Governorate noble institutions as the bodies of the social class self-government. The authors investigated the interaction with the local government, and the influence on the government policy during the petition campaign and by means of the meetings of the governorate noble society representatives. The activity of the noble institutions shows their role in the formation of the civil society. The practical value of the research is that its conceptual issues and conclusions may be used in the preparation of the summarizing and special works on the history of Russia and Tatarstan. These materials are of research and practical interest within the study of social, political and economic life of the Russian Empire and Kazan Governorate.

Keywords: Kazan Governorate, the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries, the nobility self-government, the nobility

1. Introduction

The reactivation of the democratic, political, economic and social institutions in recent times led to the study of instances in the pre-revolutionary past of Russia. The epoch of "Great Reforms" of 60-70s of the 19th century, when the authorities and the society began to work more closely, creating new institutions of the civil society, is of special interest.

The example of the post-reform Kazan Governorate nobility organizations shows the effectiveness of the dialogue between the authorities and the society. At the beginning of the 1860s, the introduction of the noble institutions caused the withdrawal of some administrative functions, performing of which made the nobility corporation dependent on the governorate authorities. This led to the empowerment of nobles by birth in the realization of private and corporate social, economic and political interests. And the government, in their turn, tried to gain the support of the service class people during the periods which were crucial for them (Mironova, 2013).

Thus, the overwhelming defeat in the Crimean War of 1853-1856 demonstrated the necessity to refuse from the villeinage practice dominating in the country. The government, being in fear of the noble society's opposition to the planned reforms, gave them charge over the preparation and further realization of the Emancipation Reform. Despite the fact that the project was developed with the participation of the nobility, it failed to reconcile the contradicting views of the land-owning classes living in the regions with different economic conditions. As early as during the first year of the reform implementation, some assemblies of nobility became significantly more active. As a result, the detailed programs of reconsideration of the "Emancipation Manifesto of 19 February 1861" were worked out (Korelin, 1979). It concerns Tula, Petersburg and Moscow Governorates (Korelin, 1979). The government's intention to direct the mindset of the noble societies into the controlled course encouraged them to give the projects of some suggested changes to class assemblies, thus giving the nobility impulse to consider the problems connected with the realization of the Emancipation and local reforms. The Kazan nobility, who have carefully observed the processes taking place in the country up to here, also began to participate in the discussion of the projects of reforms (Mironova, 2013). …

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