Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Perceptual Motor Skills for Sharp Shooter's Performance

Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Perceptual Motor Skills for Sharp Shooter's Performance

Article excerpt


The world in which we live today is more obsessed with success and with the desire to win. In almost every field that man wants to be at the top, and in sport, things are no different. In today's sporting world, performance standards have drastically increased within elite sport and the demands places the sportsman into highly demanding situations both physically and psychologically. For this reason, psychological attributes such as cognitive, psychomotor and affective skills, are becoming commonly accepted as major contributors to overcoming adversity and achieving performance success.

Particularly in target sports such as shooting, golf, archery, and billiards, the ability to accurately select the correct parameters is crucial for successful performance. Shooting and archery require high levels of mental concentration and visual information processing and it helps to access important visual stimuli and the effective processing of information are essential in this sports. Particularly in competitions, there are many distracters like noises, tensions and anxiety, so when the athlete sets up the shooting process, he/she should be focused, clear-minded and only to look at the target and this requires a high level of visual attention.

But currently only a very limited amount of scientific literature and studies were exists in the field of perceptual skills and shooting performance. Recently, high profile sports such as pistol and rifle shooting have only recently become the focus of scientific attention. But most of the studies were conducted on rifle marksmanship. Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Kim, Bewley, de Souza e, Silva & Baker (2004) examined the role of cognitive variables in marksmanship performance, focusing on aptitude and knowledge. They found that performance of less experienced participants was moderately related to these aspects of cognition. However, in a sample of more experienced participants, perceptual-motor skills were a good predictor of performance. Humphreys, Buxton and Taylor et al., 1936, McGuigan and Mac Caslin et al., 1955, Spaeth and Dunham et al., 1921 found that skilled shooters were able to hold a rifle steadier than unskilled shooters and this steadiness positively relates to shooting performance.

Another important factor contributing to marksmanship performance is visual perception. The aiming of a fire arm relies upon a steady weapon along with the correct visual perception of the target and this incorporates not only visual acuity but also cognitive aspects of perceptual process. Wells, Wagner, Reich, & Hardigan 2009 studied the relationship between visual acuity and marksmanship such that performance declines as acuity declines which supports the U. S. Army visual acuity requirements.

However, further studies have to be conducted to examine the relationship between cognitive- perceptual abilities and marksmanship. These relationships could potentially differentiate skilled from unskilled marksmen and provide insight into training and skill acquisition.


The aim of this study is to determine how perceptual motor skills are related to shooters performance.

In order to meet the objectives following null hypothesis were formulated.

Hypothesis 1: There will be no significant difference between successful and unsuccessful shooters in perceptual and motor skills.

Hypothesis 2: There will be no significant difference between above average and below average shooters in perceptual and motor skills.

Hypothesis 3: There will be no significant difference between high and low competitive experienced shooters in perceptual and motor skills.



The reference population of the study included both experienced and novice shooters. For novice shooters, 450 male shooters (age, M= 23.1, SD= 3.50) from the Indian Military academy participated in the study. …

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