Academic journal article Review of European Studies

The Russian Tourist Industry: Structure, Trends, Competitiveness at the World Market

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

The Russian Tourist Industry: Structure, Trends, Competitiveness at the World Market

Article excerpt

Abstract

The paper deals with the problems of Russian tourism with the use of statistic analysis methods. The structure of tourist economic sector is represented based on the international recommendations. The usage of adjusting factors having regard to the share of tourism within the activity of enterprises of various branches is suggested. Tourism development trends in Russia and in the world in general are revealed. Regional inequality of international incomes and expenses is demonstrated. The reasons of the Russian tourism low competitiveness on the world market are defined.

Keywords: statistics, tourist industry, types of economic activity, competitiveness, tourism expenditures, Russian tourism

1. Introduction

Among the benefits of strategic management are, for example, a clearer sense of strategic vision, sharper focus on what is strategically important and an improved understanding of a rapidly changing environment. A strategy consists of purposes, policies, programmes, actions, decisions, and/or resource allocations that define what an organisation is, what it does, and why it does it. Strategic decisions deal with the "big" things, covering multi-functional service areas and the long-term focused on innovation and core functions, and take into consideration the need for cultural change in order to create a business friendly environment. Strategy is essentially an emergent phenomenon, involving the crafting of a corporate culture through reviews of the organisation's present state, and formation of a mission and vision to guide its future development. The tourist industry is usually seasonal and strategies must therefore help regions to focus on their resources and increase local income from tourism throughout the year.

Tourist services consist of different elements, such as transportation, accommodation and activities at the place of destination. One of the major challenges is to integrate these services, resources, core competences and capabilities, so that the customer is rewarded with an unforgettable travel experience (Chen, Y. G., Chen, Ho, & Lee, 2009). The tourist sector is labour intensive and often provides work for young adults. The problem is that this sector suffers from the seasonality of tourism, and seasonality has usually limited the economic contribution that tourism can make to the local economy.

Sharma and Dyer (Sharma & Dyer, 2009) have listed several positive effects of tourism. Tourism increases, for example, employment, investments and tax revenues and demands the maintenance of high standards for roads and public facilities. It also encourages the development of a variety of cultural activities by local residents aimed at creating a positive impact on the cultural identity of the community.

As in any industrial sector, so in the tourism industry, the economic, social and technological factors, for example, affect the operational environment.

The tourist trade must have a multifarious infrastructure, including accommodation, restaurants, attractions, tours and transport connections. In many cases these are primarily developed by the private sector. Without basic services (e.g. energy, water, electricity and telecommunications) and a suitable road, rail and air infrastructure, private investment will be unwilling to provide fiscal support for tourist facilities. Also, a well-designed infrastructure supports and attracts tourists and brings revenue to the local actors (Brooker & Burgess, 2008).

There is a link between the perceived purposes of investment and government policies related to tourism. For example, if tourism is part of business policy, it will be easier to attract private investors. Also, those activities and investments supporting local food and craft production can be very beneficial financially to the regional economy.

Generally the supply chain consists of the suppliers of all the products and services that go into the delivery of products/services to customers. …

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