Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Sanitary and Veterinary Regulations of Pesticides Use: Unternational Law and Its Significance for the Republic of Kazakhstan

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Sanitary and Veterinary Regulations of Pesticides Use: Unternational Law and Its Significance for the Republic of Kazakhstan

Article excerpt

"Food safety involves everybody in the food chain."

Mike Johanns, US Senator

"One of the trends we're seeing in food and agriculture is more and more consumers wanting to know things about their food and where and how it's grown and what's in it,"

Dan Glickman, Oxfam America board member & former US Secretary of Agriculture.

Abstract

Every year 2 million people in the world have direct poisoning by pesticides, and about 50 thousand die. Depending on the structure of pesticide contamination, it is observed increase in cardiovascular and endocrine diseases, and increase of the amount of allergic diseases. Thus it is much more dangerous to human health, mostly hidden, are small amounts of pesticides and their metabolites, which may contain residues in food, not only in the plant, but also in meat, milk, fish, poultry. Some metabolites of pesticides toxicity are superior to the original substance.

In international law, there are a great number of international agreements that regulate food safety issues, international trade of food products and in particular the order of distribution and use of pesticides.

Integration and development of agricultural and food industries, globalization of food trade are changing the established system of production and distribution of food products. This leads to the creation of conditions in which both known and new foodborne illness is spreading, which in recent years have become a heavy burden for many people around the world. According to the WHO, the US annual economic loss from the use of poor-quality food and related diseases are estimated at between 6.5 to 35 billion US dollars. Thereby, by eating unsafe food, hundreds of millions of people suffer, and millions die.

Keywords: chemical safety, pesticides, international law, agreement, harmonization, Kazakhstan

1. Introduction

International attention to the issue of pesticides, as well as the facts on the health effects of pesticides once again prove the need for regular inventory of hazardous chemicals, including obsolete, unusable and banned for use pesticides and pesticides out of persistent organic pollutants. Inventory of possible sources of pesticides in the environment allows to identify contaminated territories, stocks of obsolete and banned pesticides, pockets of unregistered chemicals and to propose environmentally sound ways to eliminate them. Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, adopted on 10 September 1998 during the Plenipotentiary Conference in Rotterdam that entered into force on 24 February 2004. Its main idea - the creation of an early warning system on trade of hazardous pesticides.

International Code for the distribution and use of pesticides was adopted in November 2002. Compared to the old code of 1985, the new one has more stringent standards on the use of pesticides. It provides clearer guidance to governments, farmers, industry and trade (Lozowicka et al., 2014, pp. 238-248).

Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization (SPS Agreement) is intended to prevent the abuse of pesticides. It establishes mechanisms to ensure the conditions under which WTO Members will not use SPS measures for protectionist purposes, to the implementation of these measures do not create unnecessary barriers to international trade (Nurbayeva, 2009, p. 13).

Codex Alimentarius (it means "the law or set of laws about food" in Latin) - is a set of international food standards adopted by the International Commission of FAO/WHO to implement the code of standards and regulations for food. Codex standards cover basic food as processed and, semi-processed and unprocessed. In addition, to the extent that is necessary to achieve the policy objectives of the Code - the health of consumers and facilitate fair food trade, as well as presentated materials used in further processing of food products ("Codex Alimentarius", 2007, p. …

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