Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Innovational Mechanisms of Biotechnologies Support in Forest Sector for Providing Economic Security of the State

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Innovational Mechanisms of Biotechnologies Support in Forest Sector for Providing Economic Security of the State

Article excerpt

Abstract

In this article the mechanisms of biotechnologies support in the forest sector are viewed. Forest biotechnology has big perspectives in Russia, allowing fulfilling various socio-economic tasks - from creation of new medicinal drugs to new technologies of growing forests and improving the ecology of forest ecosystems.

It has been established that methods of innovational biotechnologies in forest-based sector are at the stage of scientific research of sectorial scientific and research organizations. In order to successfully implement biotechnologies in forestry, support and greater attention from the government are needed.

One of the mechanisms of supporting forest biotechnologies and innovational development of forest sector could be the creation of Technical research Center for development, scaling, and commercialization of biotechnologies. The place and role of the Center in regional forest cluster is established. A tool of creation of the Center should be a public private partnership which allows combining and harmonizing the interests of the government, scientific and business societies in the sphere of building of bioeconomics in the Russian Federation. The authors emphasize that these Centers of scaling would allow providing full-scale development of bioindustry in regions of Russia in all sectors of biotechnology.

Keywords: innovational technologies, biotechnologies, support mechanism, technical research center of biotechnologies scaling, public private partnership, economic security

1. Introduction

For innovational development of modern economy, three ways of development of technologies are crucial: informational technologies, nanotechnologies, and biotechnologies. Biotechnologies are rightly included into the priority sectors of economy development, for they cover almost all spheres of human life and activities and in certain events (lack of provision, environment pollution, depletion of mineral resources) support the national security of the country (Oloyede, 2008). Nowadays, biotechnology turns from the usual sector into the strategic development factor of economies of certain countries and world economy (Schulte-Bisping, 1999).

The share of the Russian Federation in the global amount of biotechnological production does not exceed 0.2 % (25 years ago - 5 %). For comparison: share of the USA is 42%, the European Union - 22%, China - 10%, India - 2%. (Figure 1). It's estimated that world market of biotechnological production will reach 2 trillion USD by 2025; growth rates for certain market segments vary from 5 - 7 to 30% annually (Berndes, 2003).

Researchers of this problematics discern four groups: forest biotechnologies, management of forests, preservation and reproduction of forest genetic resources, and creation of biotechnological forms of trees with given features and biological means of forest protection (Kudryavtseva, 2014).

It is important to note that during the last years, within the forest sector, biotechnologies are used both for forests protection, and for creation of new forms of woody plants with given features, production of planting material, creation of plantation crops with short rotation, waste utilization, and for house-building.

Scientific literature fully proves the necessity of using biotechnologies in various spheres of economy (Belyakov, 2009). However, in practice there is a certain underestimation of the role and meaning of biotechnologies in forestry (Field, 2008). Investments in biotechnologies are not enough; in the structure of Russian venture capital market, biotechnologies occupy only 2% share. At the same time, the necessity for providing a stable functioning of national economy over long term, for creation of new kind of production, and for strengthening ecological frame of the territories creates conditions for development of biotechnological complex of the country. Moreover, beginning from 2012, there functions the Complex Program for Development of Biotechnologies the Russian Federation up to 2020 - Biotech 2020 and work plan "Development of biotechnologies and genetic engineering", which proves the importance of creating innovational mechanisms for biotechnologies support in forest sector for providing national security of the country. …

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