Academic journal article The Journal of Developing Areas

Proposal of a Decision-Making Guide for Classroom Control: A Case Study of a Private Secondary School in Subang, Selangor

Academic journal article The Journal of Developing Areas

Proposal of a Decision-Making Guide for Classroom Control: A Case Study of a Private Secondary School in Subang, Selangor

Article excerpt


Past researches on organizational decision-making have sparked numerous of interest among school leaders and administrators due to its importance and contribution towards organizational effectiveness. In aspects of classroom control, teachers are confronted with discipline problems that demand a certain level of involvement for decision-making. Where disciplining is concerned, a wrong choice of decision could result in litigation cases towards teachers and schools. In addition to this conundrum, teachers were reported of abdicating their responsibilities to discipline students when it is not an option. Presently, there are no empirical evidences to uncover the instigating factors to such behavior, for the complexity lies in sampling for respondents who are willing to admit to such wrongdoing. This could be due to teachers' wanting to protect their professional image and accountability at work. Nevertheless, the problem is present because the Malaysian Education Ministry has issued a directive to remind teachers that they are disciplinarians of the school (MOEM, 2001).


Relationship between Pupil Control Ideology and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

Willower, Eidell, & Hoy (1967) conceptualized the pupil control ideology along a continuum range of custodial at one end to humanistic at the other. This ideology is operationalized by the Pupil Control Ideology (PCI) form on a scale that ranges from a custodial to a humanistic perspective. Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy (2001) designed one of the most commonly used instruments to measure teacher efficacy that is the Teacher Efficacy Scale (TSES). Based on Bandura's (1977) work and recommendations, it features three dimensions of teachers' efficacy; instructional strategies, student engagement, and classroom management. Historically, Hoy (1967) reported that many teachers became more custodial in their interactions with students within the bureaucratic context of the school. This is consistent with the social development and social impact theories of Vygotsky (1978) and Latané (1981). According to their theory, changes in teachers' pupil control ideology are most accurately caused by external contextual and programs factors. External environment such as the bureaucratic and sociological influences would be influencing teachers' classroom interactions with students. Other researchers such as Halphin (1956) have revealed the connection between school bureaucratic structure, principal leadership style to teachers' pupil control ideology. He mentioned that bureaucratic school culture is closely related to principal's bureaucratic behaviors. Similarly, this finding is further supported by March and Simmons (1993). Willoer, Eidell, & Hoy (1967) concluded that teachers PCI were more custodial in schools that are more bureaucratic, and vice versa, they are more humanistic in less bureaucratic school.

Purpose of the study

Studying teachers' decision-making requires a personal and contextual approach to understanding the organizational problem. As the Head of Department (HOD) highlighted the frequency transfer of discipline cases, there must be an attempt to simultaneously uncover the cognitive perception and environmental factors to explain teachers' decision-making due to this behavior. Apart from validating the setting of a bureaucratic organization, the major problem lies in evaluating the state of cognitive and personal beliefs among respondents through their pupil control ideology and self-efficacy. Thus, these data will support the researcher to explain their patterns and obstacles to personal decision-making.

Problem statements

According to the Head of Discipline (HOD), teachers were habitually transferring discipline matters to him. This frequent problem resulted in many interruptions to his personal work, and prolonged the time for decision-making. Therefore, the question between personal efforts and personal abilities among teachers were explored in this case study. …

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