Academic journal article International Education Studies

The Policies on Civic Education in Developing National Character in Indonesia

Academic journal article International Education Studies

The Policies on Civic Education in Developing National Character in Indonesia

Article excerpt


Each country has different policies on the implementation of Civic Education. As an independent country, Indonesia administers Civic Education separately through a special subject under the name 'citizenship education', while other countries, such as Malaysia, integrate this form of education into other subjects. The policies on Civic Education in Indonesia aim to mould a citizen who has the spirit of nationalism and patriotism (Explanation of Article 37 of the Law No. 20 of 2003). The research was conducted using library research. Meanwhile, data were analyzed descriptively, consisting of quotes. In addition, Civic Education as value-based education stresses on the realization of a good citizen, who is has holistic competencies in knowledge, skills, and traits based on the national character (the values of Pancasila or the Five Principles of Indonesia).

Keywords: citizenship education, civic education, character education, national identity, Pancasila

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

The policy on the implementation of Civic Education in Indonesia is not something new, as can be identified from various legal products explaining the enactment of Civic Education in various versions and names. Nevertheless, the process of establishing the epistemology of Civic Education as a new discipline of science was only recently found in the preliminary work of Somantri titled "Menggagas Pembaharuan Pendidikan IPS" [Initiating Reforms in Social Sciences] (2001) and Winataputra's dissertation titled "Jatidiri Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan sebagai Wahana Sistemik Pendidikan Demokrasi" [The Identity of Civic Education as a Systemic Medium of Democratic Education] (2001) (Sapriya, 2007, p. 619). Hence, Civic Education in Indonesia is still posed with challenges which include:Civic Education as a field of academic study still requires epistemological development and academic communities in order for its position to be increasingly sturdy and steady; Civic Education needs the support from academic communities in order to consolidate its body of knowledge, so that its existence as an educational discipline will be more reliable and trustworthy; and Conceptual-philosophical studies to strengthen and develop the structure and body of Civic Education as an educational discipline means development at the level of scientific foundation (Sapriya, 2007, p. 621).

In an attempt of consolidating the existence of Civic Education, the government has issued policies on the implementation of Civic Education in schools and higher education institutions. Systematically, the formal-juridical foundations of Civic Education in Indonesia are Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System as the operational foundation, Ministry's Regulation No. 22 of 2006 on Content Standards and no. 23 of 2006 on Graduate Competence Standards as curricular foundation (Sabarudin, 2010, p. 66), and the most recent is Law No. 12 of 2012. In article 37, paragraph (1) of Law No. 20 of 2003, it is stated that the curriculum of primary and secondary education must contain "... b. Civic Education," and in paragraph (2) it is stated that education curriculum must contain: ... b. Civic Education ...". Meanwhile, it is explained, "Civic Education shall be intended to mould learner to become a human being who has a sense of nationalism and patriotism". In the context of social, state, and national life, the life of students in the school is basically a process of social life education in preparing them as citizens (Somantri, 2001; Winataputra, 2001).

However, even though the policies on Civic Education have been implemented in formal institutions, such as schools and higher education institutions, moral crisis never ceases to ravage in Indonesia. According to Azra (2001), there are at least seven primary problems encountered by the education of Indonesia, which are the roots of crisis of morality and morals, namely (1) the orientation of education has lost its objectivity; (2) self-maturity does not occur appropriately in the school environment; (3) education process in school severely restricts the space for creativity both for students and teachers; (4) the load of the curriculum is too burdensome and tends to be oriented at developing cognitive domain only; (5) even if there are content materials cultivating affection, such as religious education and moral education, or what is now familiarly termed Civic Education; (6) at the same time, students are posed with contradictory set of values; and (7) a small number of living moral exemplary for students in their lives. …

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