Academic journal article International Education Studies

Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

Academic journal article International Education Studies

Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

Article excerpt

Abstract

This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems faced by parents in applying character education in their family environment; parents should be the one who become the role model for their children; to apply the character education to their children, parents have to join parenting training; the training expected by parents is the practical understanding training; identification of parents' understanding and training needs make a prototype of parenting training.

Keywords: training model, parenting, transformative learning, character education, young learners, the poor families

1. Introduction

Poor families are a community which is commonly abandoned and the analysis towards a character education of children from poor families is not much. Thus, the character education of children from poor families deserves to get a special attention and the development of the parenting training model of character education in poor families is expected to be a strategic solution to safe the young generation's characters.

This research is a caring action for the poor families as they are the marginal community. The majority of Indonesian people are living in poverty, but the economy policy in the national development program has not stood for them yet. This research is aiming at describing the role and function of parents as role models for their children. Other objectives of the research are describing a character education that should be done by parents to their children as well as conducting a parenting training model to make a prototype of parenting training in a family.

Baumrind (2006) states that there are three parenting methods applied by most parents to their children, i.e. authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. The three parenting methods give a significant effect to the children's character. Moreover, there are also some factors which affect the parenting methods chosen by parents (Fanning, 2007; Gupta, 2008). They are life experience, value system orientation, and social, culture, and economy aspects. A parenting training is one of outside school education programs. Therefore, its development should refer to the outside school education training programs. Kamil (2010) says that one of the training models is a training as media to empower people. To be highlighted this kind of training aims at improving the people's skill so that they can be more professional in performing their job. Marzuki (2009) also states that the empowerment means giving authority to somebody because they do not have enough skill in a particular field. The training program should contain some aspects, such as trainers, trainees, training process, and training materials. Besides, from the theoretical side, the program should be able to implement theories and behavioristic approach (Moedzakir, 2010).

The transformative approach is applied because it is a part of adult education (Jarvis, 2004). It means that the approach is effective when it is applied to adults. This research is meant to parents from poor families, so it is expected that the approach can trigger the parents to change their perception significantly. The transformative approach in the adult education is the latest approach and it is the most-observed approach in the adult education (Taylor, 2008). This approach is an effective and efficient breakthrough to change the perception and awareness of parents. In a difficult situation, parents would tend to make a change within themselves (Mezirow, 2003).

Literally, characters mean mental qualities. Characters can also mean psychological nature, habit, personality, and morality which distinguish one person to another. …

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