Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes and Inflammation Diseases: Cohort Study in Chinese Adults

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes and Inflammation Diseases: Cohort Study in Chinese Adults

Article excerpt

Introduction

Human with type 2 diabetes (T2D) could not produce enough insulin for the body's needs to control blood glucose or their bodies cannot adequately use the insulin (1-3). Besides, insulin may also have effects on tissue which are influenced by many factors, including obesity, the accumulation of belly fat and visceral fat in the abdomen (4). Chemicals from the fat cells could lead to inflammatory response and the levels of certain inflammatory chemicals are often higher in people with T2D compared to people without diabetes as well (5-8). Inflammatory responses contribute to the development of T2D and some even insinuated that T2D is actually inflammatory disease (9,10). Despite the fact that T2D and inflammatory responses are closely related to each other in-depth, the relationship between diabetes and some common inflammatory diseases has rarely been examined yet and thus is not well understood.

Accordingly, we conducted a large population study on this issue by pooling individual-level data comprising a total of 39367 men and women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of incident T2D with these inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory hemorrhoid, chronic bronchitis, chronic gastroenteritis, chronic gastritis or ulcer.

Materials and Methods

In order to examine the association between T2D and some common inflammatory diseases in China, we carried out a cohort study at Chinese PLA General Hospital in Beijing and The Central Hospital of Xiaogan in Hubei involving 39367 consecutively recruited persons with or without diagnosed T2D and/or seven common inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic hepatitis, inflammatory hemorrhoid, chronic bronchitis, chronic gastroenteritis, chronic gastritis or ulcer. Diagnosis of T2D and other inflammatory diseases were based on standard test and the data analysis was performed.

Study population

We used data from a population based health survey retrospective study in which clinical examinations had been conducted between 17th February, 2009 to 13th April, 2013 in Beijing and Xiaogan (Hubei Province).

Details of the design, sampling method, recruitment, investigation and data collection are described elsewhere (11,12). In our analyses, 39367 participants in China Mainland were enrolled randomly. Since a number of participants did not have any records, we excluded 1634 (4.2%) participants with missing information on T2D as well as the inflammatory diseases mentioned above at last. Clinical examinations were conducted in International Medical Center and Health Science Center of the Chinese PLA General Hospital in Beijing and the Central Hospital of Xiaogan Health Examination in Hubei.

All participants gave informed consent to take part and all data were analyzed anonymously, thus no written consent was required. The study was approved by the Review Board/Ethics Committees of the Chinese PLA General Hospital.

Clinical and laboratory variables assessment

Data on Diabetes Mellitus and inflammatory diseases-The definition of Type 2 diabetes is based on these:

1) Obtained by questionnaire with the question: "do you have Type 2 diabetes or use anti-diabetic drugs? "

2) The reported physician diagnosis;

The diagnosis of inflammatory diseases were based on clinicians rating the inflammatory diseases and the type of inflammatory were defined by the clinicians indicating a "definite" diagnosis of certain inflammatory diseases or certain antiinflammatory drugs use recorded by the clinician in the standardized clinical interview.

We obtained the information about height and weight by the physicians using a standardized protocol, and accordingly calculated out the body mass index (BMI) as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Data on smoking status (dichotomized with current smoker, former smoker and non-smoker), physical activity and highest educational qualifications were based on physicians' reports from standardized clinical interview. …

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