Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for Early Adolescents (BIS-11-A)

Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Spanish Adaptation and Validation of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for Early Adolescents (BIS-11-A)

Article excerpt

For many years the study of impulsivity has been a productive research field due to its implications in various psychiatric and behavioral disorders (Alcorn et al., 2013; Lijffijt, Kenemans, Verbaten, & van Engeland, 2005; Powers et al., 2013; Schag et al., 2013; Sobral, Villar, Gómez-Fraguela, Romero, & Luengo, 2013; Voltas Moreso, Hernández-Martínez, Arija Val, & Canals Sans, 2013), and its relationship with several risk behaviors such as substance use (Moreno-Lopez et al., 2012; O'Loughlin, Dugas, O'Loughlin, Karp, & Sylvestre, 2014; Stautz & Cooper, 2013).

The relationship between impulsivity and substance use is a very important issue, since previous studies have pointed out an association between the presence of substances use and other risk behaviors during the adolescents (Cook et al., 2006; Peters et al., 2015; Van Kammen, Loeber, & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1991), a period when substance use starts to occur (Chambers, Taylor, & Potenza, 2003). The median age of onset for substance use disorders is between 14 and 15 years (Merikangas et al., 2010; Swendsen et al., 2012). This early onset increases the risk of having physical and mental health problems in the future (McCambridge, McAlaney, & Rowe, 2011; Rubino, Zamberletti, & Parolaro, 2012).

The relationship between different forms of impulsivity and early use and abuse of different substances has been widely studied (de Wit, 2009). More specifically, some authors have found that disinhibition is directly associated with greater use of substance in girls and indirectly associated in boys (Wood, Dawe, & Gullo, 2013). Higher impulsivity levels in decision-making tasks are significantly correlated with the age of first alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. More impulsive adolescents are also more likely to experiment and use substances as well as to develop substance use disorders (de Wit, 2009). Concerning the pattern of use, high impulsivity in early adolescents represents an important risk factor for binge drinking (de Wit, 2009) and drug use escalation (Quinn & Harden, 2013).

There is not an agreed scientific definition of impulsivity (Cyders & Coskunpinar, 2011; Stahl et al., 2013; Stautz & Cooper, 2013) but most authors agree that it includes features such as lack of planning, inattention, preference for sooner outcomes or lack of capacity to remain focused on a task (Lejuez et al., 2010; Moeller, Barratt, Dougherty, Schmitz, & Swann, 2001). Concurrently to this theoretical debate, there have been many attempts to develop psychometrically robust instruments to assess impulsiveness. As a result, there are multiple self-report questionnaires available such as the Zuckerman-Kuhlman's ImpSS subscale (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993), the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (Cyders et al., 2007), Temperament Inventory Character, TCI (Cloninger, 1994), or the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS (Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995). However, most of them have been validated with adults, and since they are worded to measure adult behaviors, specific versions for adolescents are needed (Fossati, Barratt, Acquarini, & Di Ceglie, 2002).

The BIS is one of the most commonly administered self-reports for the assessment of impulsiveness in both research and clinical settings (Stanford et al., 2009), and it has been highly influential for contemporary conceptualizations of impulsivity in both personality and clinical literature (Steinberg, Sharp, Stanford, & Tharp, 2013). The last version of this test, the BIS-11, has shown high reliability (Cronbach's ^ = .83) and high predictive validity to assess high risk behaviors including symptoms of conduct disorders, attention deficit disorders, substance use and suicide attempt, both in adults and adolescents (Salvo & Castro, 2013; Stanford et al., 2009; von Diemen, Szobot, Kessler, & Pechansky, 2007). A version for adolescents and children, BIS-11-A, was developed by Fossati et al. …

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