Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Studying Psychological Aspects of New Methods of Teaching Effectiveness on Higher Education of Iran

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Studying Psychological Aspects of New Methods of Teaching Effectiveness on Higher Education of Iran

Article excerpt

Abstract

Making changes and innovation in teaching methods at higher education centers is a routine matter; in such a way that at the present time in many higher educational centers and universities of all over the world these changes can be seen. Meanwhile building motivation for achievement is among issues that researchers are giving more attention to. The present research was conducted with purpose of studying effect of the four teaching methods namely, group discussion, question and answer, demonstration, and lecture on creativity, achievement motivation and academic progress among university students. This research was a Quasi-experimental one. Statistical sample included 270 students of Alborz Farhangian University who were selected by using stratified random sampling method. Assessment tools included Hermense Achievement Motivation Inventory, Abedi Creativity Inventory and academic progress test which were developed by the authors. In order to analyze the data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) and Turkey post hoc tests were used. Results of analyses showed that the students in discussion group had higher achievement motivation, creativity and academic progress than other groups. On this basis methods of result, question and answer and lecture methods were respectively effective on students' achievement motivation, creativity and academic progress, But not as much as discussion group.

Keywords: teaching methods, psychological aspects, achievement motivation, creativity

1. Introduction

Nowadays due to dynamic nature of education, many higher education centers and universities of all over the world have started to introduce and execute innovations in their educational styles, considering the wide range of changes around them. Directing education changes and innovations especially at university and higher education centers' level is one of the most influential bases enabling us to shorten our distance with worldwide developments and changes. One of the obligations of educational system is raising individuals with achievement motivation especially in the field of developing knowledge, scientific abilities, and critical and creative thinking and also the abilities who can solve problems and dilemmas. In this way, university professors are required to utilize teaching methods which may be very different with methods they were themselves educated with; in other words they must engage students actively and mindfully in learning process (Eslamian et al., 2003). Achievement motivation is one of the variables that can be improved by changing the teaching styles. Achievement motivation is one of the most important adventitious motivations of an individual which was first proposed by Murray (Jozani & Poor, 2013). Achievement motivation refers to the individual's tendency to pass barriers, attempt to achieve the best types and maintain high level criteria. Individuals with high achievement motivation want to become complete in the works and improve their function (Atkinson, 1978). Nourishing and strengthening achievement motivation produces energy and properly directs behavior, interests and requirements of persons toward valuable and determined purposes (Winner, 1989).

Creativity is a combination of initiative, flexibility and sensitivity against theories enabling the learner to reflect upon different and productive results instead of irrational reflections, the consequence of which is personal satisfaction (Magami, 2004). One of the effective factors on creativity, achievement motivation and academic progress of students is the effectiveness of education and learning at universities and higher education centers, and efficiency of education methods is considered as one of the important criteria of every educational system (Eslamian et al., 2003). To date, many education methods have been introduced.

Traditional method is lecturing method which is teacher-oriented and the in classroom the students are only the listeners of teacher's speech; the students very rarely participate in teaching and learning process (Shabani, 2005). …

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