Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Europe 2020 Strategy and Structural Diversity between Old and New Member States. Application of Zero Unitarization Method for Dynamic Analysis in the Years 2004-2013

Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Europe 2020 Strategy and Structural Diversity between Old and New Member States. Application of Zero Unitarization Method for Dynamic Analysis in the Years 2004-2013

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)


In the year 2015 the European Union has reached the halfway of implementation of Europe 2020 strategy. The plan constitutes the second in this century ten-year strategy, which is aimed at building the conditions for sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion. As the foundation for the Europe 2020 strategy three mutually reinforcing priorities were formed: a) Smart growth: developing an economy based on knowledge and innovation; b) Sustainable growth: promoting a more resource efficient, greener and more competitive economy. c) inclusive growth: fostering a high-employment economy delivering social and territorial cohesion (European Commission 2010, p. 3).

Europe 2020 document is a continuation of the Lisbon Strategy announced at the beginning of this century, which was aimed at improving conditions for sustainable economic development described with the formula "to become the most competitive and dynamic economy in the world; based on knowledge, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (see Royuela-Mora et al., 2005, pp. 54-58; Lenain, 2005, pp. 9-31). The Lisbon Strategy was adopted during the significant economic changes associated with development of the global knowledge-based economy, which was accompanied by very high rate of economic growth achieved by the United States (see Balcerzak, 2009, pp. 3-22). It was an ambition of political and economic elites of the European Union to create the conditions, which would allow Europe to "catch up" of the United States in terms of the development of conditions for using the potential of knowledgebased economy. Unfortunately, already in the halfway of the Lisbon strategy, it was clear that the achievement of its objectives is impossible (Mogensen, 2005, pp. 46-49). In this time many representatives of European political elites were in favor of the view that the failure of Lisbon strategy implementation should be mainly treated as a consequence of European Union enlargement and the structural diversity between "New and Old Europe" (see Wanilin, 2006). In this context the main aim of the paper is to analyze the fulfillment of the goals of Europe 2020 strategy from the perspective of the years 2004-2013 with special consideration to the progress obtained by ten countries that joined EU in the years 2004 and 2007. In the analysis a special attention was given to the results of the Visegrad Group as the biggest economies of the EU-10 in relation to the achievements of the most important Eurozone economies. The first year of the analysis is the year of the biggest European Union enlargement, which can be considered as the most significant institutional change in Central and Eastern Europe. In the same time it is the first year of the availability of the data for all the specific diagnostic variables for reaching targets of Europe 2020. The year 2013 is the last year when the data is available.

This article should be treated as a continuation of the research on the realization of Lisbon strategy made in the year 2008 (Balcerzak et al., 2008, pp. 77-88). It also refers to the research made in 2011, which was aimed at evaluation of "starting position" of Poland in the context of Europe 2020 (Balcerzak, 2011a, pp. 31-41) and its progress during the difficult years of financial crisis in Europe (Balcerzak, 2015a, pp. 343-352, 2015b).

The article is organized as follow. In the first part the previous research on the fulfillment of Lisbon and Europe 2020 strategies is discussed. The second part of the article has strictly empirical nature with taxonomic dynamic analysis for the years 2004-2013 with application of zero-unitarizatin method. The article is ended with conclusions and potential suggestions for economic and institutional policy.

The article completes and improves existing studies by:

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