Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Examination of Human Psychological Needs According to Islamic Teachings

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Examination of Human Psychological Needs According to Islamic Teachings

Article excerpt

Abstract

Every day, mental illnesses bring about significant economic, social, and personal loss. It is for this reason that investigation of human psychological needs is essential. Failure to meet these needs may result in mental disorder. Keeping the psyche healthy and securing peace of mind are some of the main concerns of monotheistic religions, especially Islam. The psychological needs of human beings addressed in the teachings of Islam are examined in the present study. According to Islamic teachings, the most important mental needs of humans include safety, love, self-esteem, knowledge, beauty, self-actualisation, and prayer.

Quranic teachings maintain that fulfilment of psychological needs not only prevents mental disorders, but also acts as a prelude to worshiping God since humans attain sustainable peace through worship.

Keywords: psychological needs, human beings, Islamic teachings, Quranic teachings

1. Introduction

Anxiety and depression are disorders from which many people suffer. They are, in fact, the most prevalent mental disorders. Proliferation of psychological conditions throughout the world lead the World Health Organisation (WHO) to start a new programme of mental health services. In 1961, a great social psychiatry movement began in the USA, which was called by some 'the third great revolution'.

Specialists have estimated that the onset of 80% of all modern diseases coincides with psychological pressure. Considering that mental illnesses bring about significant economic, social, and personal loss every day, it is essential that the psychological needs of human beings be investigated. Failure to meet these needs can result in mental disorder. Thus, utilising a descriptive and analytic approach, the present research seeks to answer the question: According to Islamic teachings, what are the psychological needs of human beings, and what are the effects of fulfilment of such needs?

2. Human Psychological Needs

Over the course of history, Islam has attracted millions of people from various ethnicities and geographical locations. It has changed their lifestyles and has given their lives a special purpose. It has also provided them with rules and guidelines for personal and social life. Doubtless, such a religion utilises a special psychological system. Some of the main concerns of monotheistic religions, especially Islam, include solving mental problems and securing peace of mind (A?madi, 1993, p. 806). The following are the most important psychological needs of humans according to Islamic teachings.

2.1 Safety

If the physiological needs of a person are satisfied relatively well, a new set of needs emerge that can be generally considered as safety-related needs (Shamlu, 1993, pp. 136-146; Mu?y al-Din Bunab, 1995, pp. 38-39; Maslow, 1995, pp. 82-83).

There is a difference between the need for safety according to the Islamic view and the materialistic perspective. In a materialistic view, this need is a purpose. However, in Islam, it is a precondition for attaining the goal of becoming God's representative (caliph) upon the earth. An outcome of the difference between these views is as follows. Any kind of threat to the materialistic human leads to loss of inner balance since the secular person is limited to worldly time and space; they have nothing but a finite lifetime and a restricted area in which to live.

However, this is not so for the believer. The misfortunes throughout life are replaced with spiritual values, otherworldly blessings, and divine destiny. For believers, worldly life is a bridge to eternal life in the next world. On the other hand, persons whose sole purpose in life is attaining everything possible in this world knows no bounds in satisfying their desires (Majlisi, 1984, vol. 73, p. 7).

When there is a threat to the law, order, and government of a society, the need for safety is urgent. In such a situation, it is to be expected that in most people nihilism and fear of chaos will result in regression from higher needs and prioritisation of the overwhelming need for safety (? …

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