Academic journal article International Education Studies

Development Parenting Model to Increase the Independence of Children

Academic journal article International Education Studies

Development Parenting Model to Increase the Independence of Children

Article excerpt


This study examines parenting and the child's independence model. The research problem is whether there is a relationship between parenting and the child's independence. The purpose of research is to determine: firstly, the type of parenting in an effort to increase the independence of the child; and the relationship between parenting models and the child's independence. The study population was a junior high school student in the city of Makassar. Data were collected through the scale/questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive analysis statistics and statistical inferential. The results showed that: firstly the type of parenting patterns used today in relation with the independence of children are respectively: positive parenting, democratic, authoritarian, permissive, negative/unhealthy, and derelict; secondly, a positive parenting and a democratic parenting model can increase the child's independence, and finally, there is a positive and significant relationship between parenting models and the child independence.

Keywords: parenting, self-reliance, independence relationships parenting

1. Introduction

Philosophically, the educational objective is the process of "humanizing" a human kind (Sudiarja, 2006), because humans do not directly develop into complete human beings, there is a process of learning as the process of education that may help to improve knowledge, attitudes and psychometric of human being. In the process of humanizing, education plays a very important role, through human education can be developed to become the actual potential personality of the person.

One of the goals of education is to develop individual knowledge , attitudes potential especially the " ability to pursue the independence" of the child. Especially the ability to make a decision, A decision of one person is done without someone others person intervention. Education has main the task and function to develop human and community independence of the nation. Suryono (2013) expressed the opinion Ki Hajar Dewantara a prominent Indonesian educators believes that generally human action of teaching is influenced person started from their born, while the inner life gained from education.

Lately, nearly every day in the printing and electronic media show or describe the behavior of students who are very far from independent behavior. Dependent behavior is characterized of someone or students by looking at their attitudes that are not responsible for their behavior, such as: often too late, do not attend classes at certain hours, do not take advantage of free time to learn, less/no help parents with their own consciousness, lack of discipline in learning and less active in community activities.

In connection with the case examples above, many factors can affect the child's independence. These factors can come from within the internal children and external factors of the children. Ali and Asrori (2008) and Astuti (2009) suggested the internal factors of the children, such as gene/descent, birth order, physical condition, talent and intellectual potential, maturity, and sex of the child; while the external factors of the child, such as parenting pattern, school system, and the system of environment. There are several factors, which needs to studied further such as the factor of parenting, with considerate the child's independence is strongly influenced by his parents patterns , which stems from the development of the child in the family.

The fact shows many parents treat has/her children like a child, despite his/her already adult (Sunarty, 2014). This related with the opinion of James (2002) which revealed that many parents everyday characterized by his words and actions to criticize paced, completely protects, always changing, completely opposed, neglect, self-regulating, and emotional demands of child care excessive, resulting in children not independent. If the behavior context (words and actions) such parent is allowed to continue or not immediately changed it will cause bad effects on the child, the child becomes submissive, waiting for orders, not confident, too afraid to blame, which in the end could not make their own decisions on activities. …

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