Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Effect of Appropriate Technology Introduction to Farm Households in Vietnam for GHG Emission Reduction

Academic journal article Journal of Sustainable Development

Effect of Appropriate Technology Introduction to Farm Households in Vietnam for GHG Emission Reduction

Article excerpt

Abstract

In June 2015, carbon credits amounting to 446 t of CO2 were issued for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project developed and implemented in Vietnam's Mekong Delta aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the introduction of biogas digesters (BDs) to farm households. Subsequently, the project was evaluated in terms of GHG emission reductions (i.e., carbon credits issued), receptiveness of farm households to the technology, and economic benefits to these families. Findings confirmed that BDs provide concrete reductions in GHG emissions and are beneficial to install in such scenarios. Currently, a new international framework for post-2020 global warming mitigation is being considered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in which all signatory countries would participate, including the developing countries that have not yet been mandated to make reductions. These evaluation results present a potential policy direction for developing countries to reduce their GHG emissions.

Keywords: biogas digester, carbon credit, CDM, GHG emission reduction, sustainable development

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that the "warming of the climate system is unequivocal," and predicts that by the end of the 21st century the global mean temperature could increase by up to 4.8°C and sea levels could rise by up to 82 cm (IPCC, 2014). The same report predicts, "given the strong dependence in rural areas on natural resources, the impacts of climate change on rural livelihoods and incomes are likely to be especially serious." For developing countries highly reliant on primary industries, the effects of climate change are substantial. Meanwhile, the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP), which assesses global warming mitigation measures, is considering a new post-2020 international framework in which all countries would participate, including developing countries that have not yet been obligated to reduce GHG emissions, with an agreement expected in 2015 at the convening of COP21 in Paris.

Established under the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a system to trade emission reduction units created through emissions reduction projects established in developing countries. The CDM also aims to contribute to the sustainable development of developing countries. Most CDM projects thus far have emphasized efficient GHG reductions (WB, 2014) and few projects have taken root in rural areas of developing countries where developmental challenges such as poverty are prevalent. However, analyses of CDM projects to date conclude that they either do not contribute to sustainable development (Olsen, 2007) or have no effect on reducing poverty in rural areas (Sirohi, 2007). A primary reason for the reluctance of developing countries to participate in GHG emission reduction frameworks is that the usefulness of such frameworks within these countries is not evident to them. However, rural areas within developing countries are not only the most vulnerable to the impacts of global warming but are also the primary source of these countries' GHG emissions. Therefore, it is essential to clarify the benefits of reducing GHG emissions in rural parts of developing countries (Izumi et al., 2014).

In June 2015, the UN CDM Executive Board issued Certified Emission Reductions (CER, or carbon credits) for the CDM Project "Farm Household Biogas Project Contributing to Rural Development in Can Tho City." The project was created and implemented with the participation of the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Can Tho University (CTU), and Can Tho City Government, Vietnam (UNFCCC, 2015b). The goal of the project is to reduce GHG emissions by providing biogas digesters (BDs), utilizing anaerobic fermentation of pig excreta, to farm households in Can Tho. …

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