Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Transactional Leadership Style on Administrative Effectiveness in Sports Organisations in Ghana

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Transactional Leadership Style on Administrative Effectiveness in Sports Organisations in Ghana

Article excerpt

Every organization that wants to remain and wax stronger in a global market competitive environment must engage the service of good leaders. Kouzes and Posner (2003) state that leaders must embrace the importance of treating employees better in order for an organisation to thrive in a global and competitive society. They noted that in highly competitive, rapidly changing environments, caring and appreciative leaders are the ones to bet on for long-term success. Ebong (2006) described leadership as the kind of direction, which a person can give to a group of people under him in such a way that it influence the behaviour of another individual or group. Ngodo (2008) perceived leadership to be a reciprocal process of social influence, in which leaders and subordinates influence each other in order to achieve organisational goals. While Robbins (2000) defines leadership as the ability of superiors to direct, guide and motivates people towards the attainment of a given set of goals in an organisation.

The source of influence may be formal such as that provided by the possession of managing rank in an organisation or informally outside the organisation structure. Most organisational theorists agreed that effective leadership is one of the most important contributors to overall success. The quality of an organisation's leadership determines the quality of the organisation itself. According to Armstrong (2004), leadership is defined as influence, power and the legitimate authority acquired by a leader to be able to effectively transform the organisation through the direction of the human resources that are the most important organisational asset, leading to the achievement of a desired purpose. This can be done through the articulation of the vision and mission of the organisation at every moment, to influence the staff and define their power by sharing this vision. Leaders are not as such born, but are in fact made. An administrator may be a boss but not necessarily a leader.

Leader today face the challenge of recruiting and holding on to competent employees in organisations. Soucie (1994) opines that, leaders are key source of influence on organisational variables to performance. A leader's ability to inspire, motivate and create commitment to common goal is crucial (Bass, 1997). Thus, the extents of leadership skills form the styles, which largely dictate the outcome of their actions with the subordinates (Moghimi, 2002). Hence, administrators' performance is a multi-dimensional factor in sports organisations which could be principally improved by efforts (Sotodeh, 2001). It has been suggested that, there are two views of leadership: the traditional view of transactional leadership, involving an exchange process between leader and subordinate, and the transformational leadership, which allows for the development and transformation of people (Meyer & Botha, 2000). Traditional leadership theories focused mainly on rational process. But theories of leadership emphasise emotions and values (Yukl, 1994) and imply that leader and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation (Burns, 1978). As modeled by Bass (1985) transactional leadership is comprised of two fundamental dimensions: contingent reward and management-by-exception.

Transactional leaders motivate subordinates to perform as expected (Burns, 1978). The contingent reward takes place when the leader and follower have a mutual understanding of the rewards or sanctions for performance or nonperformance. This emphasis is on completing tasks that have been agreed upon based on previous expectations, which the leader provides rewards contingent on performance. Managementby-exception, however, indicate that the leader takes action only when major deviations from plans are evident, there two forms of it. Management-by-exception (Active), which imply leader takes corrective action in anticipation of problem, and management-by-exception (Passive) defined as the leader takes corrective action when problem arise. …

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