Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Worker-Supervisor Relationship and Pay Satisfaction: Influence on Turnover Intention among Primary School Teachers in Ado, Nigeria

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Worker-Supervisor Relationship and Pay Satisfaction: Influence on Turnover Intention among Primary School Teachers in Ado, Nigeria

Article excerpt

The past few years have been the most threatening period for primary education in Benue State, Nigeria. Since the pronouncement of minimum wage in Nigeria, the primary school system in Benue state has reached a fever pitch because of the fact that teachers have not been paid the minimum wage. The result of this could be high level of turnover intentions among the primary school teachers. There is consensus that there exists a general problem of finding successful mechanism of retaining employees especially in a job environment that is characterized by constant yearning for pay rise (Mba & Ikemefuna, 2012).

Turnover intention is defined as the reflection of "the probability that an individual will change his or her job within a certain period (Sousa-Poza & Henneberger, 2002).Turnover intention captures the individual's perception and evaluation of job alternatives (Mobley, Griffeth, Hand & Meglino 1979). In Henneberger and Sousa-Poza study, it resulted that the decision on job mobility is rather been made by employees in the short run (Henneberger, Sausa-Poza & Ziegler, 2007). Not all employees who intended to change their job had an actual turnover, on the contrary, employees who did not intend to change it had actual turnover.

Research has been conducted on some factors that bring about workers turnover intention. For instance, it is known that a leader has to provide support or show consideration for employees' concerns otherwise a negative leader-employee interaction can result in lower pleasure with work, reduced productivity and motivation (Ribelin, 2003) and ultimately turnover intentions. Supervisory support lowers turnover intent through its positive impact on job satisfaction (Price, 2001). Supervisors directly influence the day-today experience of work and can offer valuable support in performing job tasks (Stinglhamber & Vandenberger, 2003).Instrumental social support, which refers to supervisors providing assistance with job tasks, has been linked to employee wellbeing and actual turnover (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). Supervisor behaviors have been shown to shape employees perception about job related stressor and subsequently, turnover intention (O'Driscoll & Beehr, 1994). More so, supervision represents the most visible symbol of the organization and previous research suggests that employee's perception about supervisors is often generalized to broader evaluation of the organization (Rhoades & Eisenberger 2002). For example, perception of supervisor support have been shown to be strongly associated with perception that the organization is supportive (Maertz, Griffeth, Cambell, & Allen, 2007; Shanock & Eisenberger, 2006) and this may significantly affect the turnover intension of workers. Issa, Ahmad, and Gelaidan, (2013) however showed that there is significantly low negative relationship between supervision satisfaction and turnover intentions. In another study, Zahra, Irum, Mir and Chishti (2013) show that when supervisory support increases, turnover intentions of teachers decreases. This significant relationship shows that teachers start thinking of leaving the institution when they do not receive supportive supervision. From the above therefore, it is hypothesized that worker-supervisor relationship will significantly influence turnover intention of primary school teachers.

Pay satisfaction is another variable that affect workers behavior in organizations. According to Mueller and Price (1990), pay is considered as part of the sanctions system used by organizations to motivate employees to be in compliance with its regulations and rules. In addition, pay is also used to compensate workers for their input in a workplace. And previous research showed that, the better paid employees within the same hierarchy level tend to stay in the organization (Henneberger & Sousa-Poza, 2007). Griffet, Horn, and Gaertner (2000) reported that pay satisfaction and pay related variables have a modest effect on turnover intentions of employees. …

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