Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Relationship between School Principals' Leadership Styles and Teachers' Job Performance in Ondo State, Nigeria

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Relationship between School Principals' Leadership Styles and Teachers' Job Performance in Ondo State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Education in Nigeria is an instrument for effecting national development, the country's educational goals have been set out in the National Policy on Education in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individual and the society (FGN, 2004). Towards this end, the National Policy on Education sets up certain objectives which are to facilitate educational development in the country. In fostering these objectives, the school principal has important roles to play. Among these roles include providing effective leadership in secondary schools, thereby enhancing better job performance among teachers. How effective the principal is in performing these roles has been a matter of concern to many educationists (Aghenta, 2000; Ige, 2001 and Adeyemi, 2004). It is therefore not surprising that there is pressure mounted on effective leadership among principals of secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria.

It seems however that many principals have not considered their styles of leadership as determinant of teachers' job performance in their schools. Hence, some of them seem to find it difficult to effectively administer their schools (Popoola, 2007; Adeyemi, 2004). As such, leadership style occupies an important position in school management in Ondo State, Nigeria. The school principal is in a unique position as the manager or administrator who controls school resources for the purpose of attaining the academic goals of the schools in Nigeria.

There are diverse meanings of the term leadership due to different perspectives and context within which the word is used. Burns (2008) defines leadership in an organization as a process in which one person successfully exerts influence over others to reach desired objectives. Cohen (2000) asserted that leadership is the managing of the human resources in order to manage their performance by inducing them to work willingly, a leader is a person who has the ability to influence the behaviour of others. Gibson and Harold (1999) define a leader as an individual who acts in a group with common interests, purposes or goals. Cohen (2000) has a different way of defining leadership. He states that leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve specific objectives in specific situations. The definition of leadership presented in this study also implies that the leader has a sense of direction and the effectiveness of one's attempts to influence is contingent upon unique situational factors (Cohen, 1997). Therefore, leadership is the ability to influence others to meet defined objectives or goals.

Review of Literature

Leadership is the process of influencing the activities of a group of people by a leader in efforts towards goal achievement (Nworgu, 1991). It involves a force that initiates actions in people and the leader himself or herself (Nwadian, 1998). It could be described as the ability to get things done with the assistance and co-operation of other people within the school system (Aghenta, 2001). Leadership is defined as an interactive process that provides needed guidance and direction. Leadership involves three interacting dynamic elements: a leader, a follower and a situation. Researchers such as Nworgu, (1991); Obi (2003) and Okoji, (2014) have also identified three other styles of leadership these include the Autocratic, Democratic and Laissez-faire leadership styles. The autocratic leadership style is also known as the authoritarian style of leadership, power and decision-making reside in the autocratic leaders (Adeyemi, 2011). The autocratic leader directs group members on the way things should be done, the leader does not maintain clear channel of communication between himself or herself and the subordinates. He or she does not delegate authority nor permit subordinates to participate in policy-making (Smylie and Jack, 1990; John, 2002).

The democratic style of leadership emphasizes group and leader participation in the making of policies. Decisions about organizational matters are arrived at after consultation and communication with various people in the organization. …

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