Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Job Demand and Job Status on Job Involvement among Non-Burnout Employees

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Influence of Job Demand and Job Status on Job Involvement among Non-Burnout Employees

Article excerpt

In the face of economic resurgence and financial instability with higher levels of decreasing capital value, industries and organizations require extra effort to meet up with the competitive and non-encouraging work atmosphere. With such huge requirements from the economy to survive as an industry, job positions and workplace requirement are increasing. Managers are aware that efforts to promote job involvement among workers pay off substantially since employees will be more likely to assist in furthering their company's objectives (Bhatia, Deep & Sachdeva, 2012). Accordingly, as the involvement level of employees is expected to increase for efficiency in work place, there tends to be increases in job demands.

The theoretical explanation of goal setting had identified the possibility of increasing demands resulting to an increase level of involvement, provided the essential requirements are available (Latham, Locke, & Fassina, 2002; Locke & Latham, 2002). Locke and Latham, as cited in Seijts, Latham, Tasa & Latham (2004), stated that, given goal commitment, a specific challenging goal leads to higher task performance than a vague goal. High job demands may act as an intrinsic motivator when the job is challenging and employees can use different skills, leading them to feel that their job has a substantial effect on others. This will be make individuals engage with their job (Sawang, 2012). The tendency to experience more challenging goal is associated with task complexity and job level. This is such that it could be hinged on promotion and higher job positions or status. Therefore, the possibility of increasing job demand leading to an increasing level of involvement in the job (if resources are assumed available and thus absence of burnout) could be conditioned on the job position or status of the employees.

High job demands may also turn into job stressors when the demands require high effort from individuals (Nahrgang, Morgeson & Hofmann, 2011). This is such that excessive job demands incur feelings of fatigue and exhaustion, thus reducing their engagement at work (Sawang, 2012). Job Demand-Resource (JDR) model from a different angle postulated that increasing job demand would lead to burnout if resources are not available (Demerouti Bakker, Nachreiner and Schaufeli (2001). Hakanen, Bakker and Demerouti (2005) and Xanthopoulou (2009) confirmed this in their research when they noted that engagement with the job increases along with increase in demands with resources boosting the effect. Burnout is characterised by distancing of oneself from the job and the experience of this could imply low level of involvement. In instances whereby burnout is absent among workers, it could be presumed from the JDR model that there is the availability of resources. Relating this to the goal setting theory, it is speculated that increase in job demand with respect to job positions, should imply increase in workers' involvement in the absences of burnout. Based on the logical explanation, the present study thus investigates on the influence of job demand and job status on the involvement level of non-burnout employees.

When individuals are placed with specific goal that has similar connections with their self-goals or is seen as a self-goal, they tend to be motivated and display higher level of involvement in the job. Goals promote planning, interactions between managers and among teams to align plans, monitor milestones and make course correction when needed. All these are different aspect of involvement with the job. Locke and Latham (2002) cited Locke's research showing that a more challenging goal means more or higher level of involvement, but saddling individuals with challenging goals demands job positions and specifications that are commensurate with the challenges. This is because of the variations in the efforts exhibited be individuals (Liao & Lee, 2009). Taking example of a goal target that requires the proper administration of a body of workers with directions and on-the-job monitoring for success and achievement. …

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