Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Ballgames and Burnout

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Ballgames and Burnout

Article excerpt

Introduction

Games and Sports are the medium whereby children get ample opportunities to develop their potentiality (Côté & Fraser-Thomas, 2007). There are varieties of reasons for children to participate in sports (Gould & Petlichkoff, 1988). The reasons such as enhancing well balanced physiological, psychological and sociological status as well as developing athletic talent are some of the contributing factors (Gould & Carson, 2004). As burnout is a highly prevalent factor for adolescent athletes, it arrests with attention and becomes an important part of discussion among researchers from the field of sports psychology. In India, sports is still an unsystematic discipline and rarely any research work has conducted before in this area. It has been seen that players are tremendously affected by various means such as lack of facility, cooperation from federation, coaching facility, parental support, etc. which ultimately could become potential antecedents for burnout to develop. This study then focused on the investigation of these factors and its effects in the development of burnout and in young athlete. To adopt the theoretical framework for present study, Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) has been found as appropriate tool to corroborate the scrutiny of causes behind athlete's burnout (Hodge, Lonsdale, & Ng, 2008). It is also well evident that the fulfillment of basic need may turn as hidden factors toward the progress development in athletes' activity. For the basic needs theory, a sub-theory of self-determination theory as proposed by Deci and Ryan (2000) on humans' basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness may found useful. Within the sport context, competence refers to a perception that one is able to be effective in one's sport. Autonomy involves feelings of volition, choice, and self-directedness, while relatedness refers to perceptions of connectedness with others. When these needs are satisfied, humans are expected to experience optimal wellbeing (e.g. subjective vitality; Ryan & Frederick, 1997). Conversely, the thwarting of needs is thought to lead to expressions of ill-being (e.g. burnout; Perreault, Gaudreau, Lapointe & Lacroix, 2007). According to Deci and Ryan (1985), the extent to which these needs are satisfied determines the degree to which an athlete's behavior is regulated by processes that are congruent with the individual's sense of self, known as self-determined motivation.

Participation in games and sports showed a positive concordance in career achievement (Larson & Verma, 1999) for youth and could alleviate the number of school dropout and their delinquent activities (McMillan & Reed, 1994; Segrave, 1983). Nevertheless, the level of burnout in sports produced adverse with critical and specific findings for conclusion. Several terms are often interchangeably used in burnout literature and at the same time it is important to distinguish how these terms differ from burnout with its positive and negative occurrence (Raglin &Wilson, 2000a) in sports setting.

Some of the terms documented have the relationship with "overtraining" (Raglin, 1993) and the maladaptive responses to overtraining link to the development of staleness (Weinberg & Gould, 1999), hypercortisolism, premature fatigue during training (Raglin & Wilson, 2000a), mood disturbances (Raglin, 1993; Raglin & Wilson, 2000b), maladaptive fatigue syndrome (Henschen, 2000), multidimensional syndrome (Dale & Weinberg, 1990; Gould, 1996) and chronic stress (Dale & Weinberg, 1990). Coakley (1992) suggested that burnout lies in more of a social foundation rather than stress (Brandonn S, 2005). Schmidt and Stein (1991), by using a commitment perspective for analysis, suggested that burnout occurred when athletes remain in sport for some other reason outside of enjoyment (Brandonn S, 2005). But the most popular definition on burnout was extended by Maslach and Jackson (1981). …

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