Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Relationships among Future Time Perspective, Career and Organizational Commitment, Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Turnover Intention

Academic journal article Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

Relationships among Future Time Perspective, Career and Organizational Commitment, Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Turnover Intention

Article excerpt

Previous researchers have investigated a variety of factors in relation to turnover intention, that is, the individual's own estimated probability that he or she will be leaving the organization at some point in the near future (Vandenberg & Nelson, 1999). Work-related attitudes, such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment, are known as strong predictors of turnover intention (Ramoo, Abdullah, & Piaw, 2013). Individuals who are satisfied with, and committed to, their current job/organization are less likely than are those who are not satisfied and committed, to consider resigning. As well as job attitudes, many other variables have been examined as antecedents of intention to quit (Kim & Kao, 2014). For example, in a meta-analysis by Griffeth, Hom, and Gaertner (2000) five categories of turnover predictors were identified: personal characteristics (e.g., demographic variables and cognitive ability), work-related variables (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational factors, and work environment factors), external environment factors (e.g., alternative job opportunities), behavioral predictors (e.g., lateness, absences, performance), and cognition/ behavior about the withdrawal process (e.g., job search, thinking of quitting). We believed that a thorough analysis of these predictor variables would provide a good understanding about what determines turnover intention and actual turnover.

However, relatively little is known about how an individual's psychological characteristics affect turnover decision/intention. An example is two employees who are similar in their demographic characteristics, dissatisfied with their current job, and have an alternative job opportunity. If one employee considers quitting and the other does not, how can their different approaches be explained? We believed that the individual's psychological traits should be taken into account. Recently, researchers have begun to look at personality traits, such as proactive personality and self-monitoring, in order to provide additional explanations for turnover intention (Yang, Gong, & Huo, 2011), but still more work is required to enhance understanding of the psychological factors that influence turnover intention/decision.

We explored a psychological characteristic that we believed could impact turnover intention: future time perspective (FTP; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). We also examined other career-related variables to establish how FTP interacts with each of those variables to influence turnover intention. First, we examined occupational self-efficacy. Next, two important factors predicting turnover intention-career commitment, and organizational commitment-were examined.

Future Time Perspective, Occupational Self-efficacy, Career Commitment, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention

Zimbardo, Keough, and Boyd (1997) categorized time perspective into past, present, and future and demonstrated that when individuals have a present-time focus this can lead to risky behavior, such as reckless driving. Compared to present-focused people, who seek out pleasure without considering future consequences, future-oriented people tend to place more value on goals in the distant future, and put more effort than others do into current activities that they perceive to be instrumental in achieving future goals (Thoms & Greenberger, 1995). FTP refers to an individual's mental representation of the future (Savickas, 1991; Walker & Tracey, 2012), and has been treated as either an individual-difference variable that is stable over time (e.g., future orientation: Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999; temporal depth: Bluedorn, 2002) or a cognitive-motivational construct that can change over time and across situational contexts (Carstensen, 2006; Cate & John, 2007). Following Carstensen's approach (Zacher & Frese, 2009), in this research, we defined FTP as a cognitive-motivational construct that describes an individual's sense of purpose for the future. …

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