Academic journal article Research and Theory for Nursing Practice

Development of an Attitude Scale for Home Care

Academic journal article Research and Theory for Nursing Practice

Development of an Attitude Scale for Home Care

Article excerpt

The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes about home care services and to develop a reliable and valid measurement tool. This methodological study was carried out on 290 students studying at a school of health. Mary Albrecht's nursing model for home health care, Jean Watson's theory of human caring, and Leslie Jean Neal's theory of home health nursing practice constituted the theoretical framework of the study. According to the results of the confirmatory factor analysis, obtained fit indices (x2/df 5 1.91, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] 5 .057, normed fit index [NFI] 5 .80, comparative fit index [CFI] 5 .89, goodness-of-fit index [GFI] 5 .85) showed that the proposed model is appropriate for the scale. The Attitude Scale for Home Care (ASHC) consists of 3 subdimensions and 29 items. Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was .93. Therefore, ASHC is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes about home care and can be used in selecting personnel to work in home care services.

Keywords: home care; home care services; attitude scale; scale

Chronic disease, cancer, and health expenses in older adults are continuously increasing across the world and in Turkey. Therefore, nursing services need to be offered to patients in their homes because of the demand for high-quality health services, provision of 24/7 health care services, ongoing reductions in health expenses, development in medical science and technology, and the inclusion of illness management programs in the preventive health system (Al-Mazrooa, 2011; Fadilog lu, Ertem, & S enuzun-Aykar, 2013).

Home care is covered in many countries, particularly Western countries (Güler & Akin, 2012). Home care is defined as the "provision of health and nursing care services together with follow up services by the healthcare team in line with the medical advices of physicians, to ill people in the environment where they live with their families in such a way to satisfy medical requirements including rehabilitative and physical therapy and psychological treatment" (Mevzuati Gelistirme ve Yayin Genel Müdürlüg ü, 2005). The organization, provision, and financing of home care services may vary between countries depending on the welfare of the countries, taxes collected, and level of contribution provided by families to these health care services (Genet, Kroneman, & Boerma, 2013).

Care in nursing care management theories is presented as a process in which a patient and a nurse are in contact with each other, and the nurse, being aware of the disease and requirements of the patient from the viewpoint of the patient, furnishes medical attention specific to the patient (Leininger, 1988; Wikberg & Eriksson, 2008). Accordingly, care is a multidimensional concept that covers healthy or ill persons and their families and includes relational themes, such as caring, affection, sensitivity, appreciation, therapeutic intervention, communication, and instruction (Nightingale, 1859/1992; Renpenning & Taylor, 2003; Senn, 2013; Vieira, Freitas, Brito, Teófilo, & Silva, 2013; Watson, 2013). Nurses are required to base their practice on nursing models and avoid the medical model accompanied with work orientation to provide multidimensional health care services (Watson, 2013).

Attitude, which affects both social perception and behaviors, has three components: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. It is defined as the tendency to either accept or reject a thought about objects, people, and events. Attitudes express the feelings of an individual about things (Fazio, 1986; Freedman, Carlsmith, & Sears, 1970). Considering the opinions of the person providing home care, which is a new concept in Turkey, will be useful in assessing health care services offered at home, introducing required arrangements in case of any unfavorable situation, and increasing quality. There is no attitude scale related to home care in the literature, although there are many nursing theories and models employed in home care practice (Albrecht, 1990; Alligood, 2014; Leininger, 1988; Neal, 1999, 2007; Nightingale, 1859/1992; Renpenning & Taylor, 2003; Watson, 2013). …

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