Academic journal article Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies

Era of Deterrence to Dependence through Blue Diplomacy Influenced by China 1

Academic journal article Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies

Era of Deterrence to Dependence through Blue Diplomacy Influenced by China 1

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

End of world wars and specifically the Cold War marked the end of centuries old era of war which due to its devastating affects had induced the domain of hate among various civilizations and countries. The sphere of hate and revenge kept the vital facets of peace and stability away from humanity. World has witnessed many war ranging from world wars to minor battles fought between various nations and alliance of nations. The world wars entrenched the race to subdue other nations so many countries started to enhance their military capability that triggered an un-controllable International arm race leading to the nuclear arena. Nuclear weaponry not only brought in the complete and utter destruction but also made the world acquaint with the theory of deterrence. International powers started to build and enhance nuclear capability even at the cost of development and humanity. Fewer countries started to influence the weaker ones and resultantly met financially saturation so such countries steered towards energy resources to balance the economic and military capacity. The economy is based on the virtue of trade which apart from the relations also needs the trade routes; which are cheap and secure. Contemporary world order of economy can be pragmatically achieved cheaper to be achieved via oceans as cargo transportation by shipping is cheapest mean of transportation. In order to use and secure the sea lines of communication countries started depending more upon each other. The facet of interdependence is not only enhancing interdependence but is also transforming diplomacy into blue diplomacy. The significant facet of interdependence is likely to lead the concept of universalism; highlighting the vitality of universal brotherhood for global peace and development.

DIMENSIONS OF WAR LEADING TO DETERRENCE

Up till the end of Cold War; war has always been a dominant contrivance of foreign policies and diplomacies. This contrivance had been used by various countries to subdue others or to use it as an offensive for defending their sovereignties. Apart from the facade of destruction war familiarized few other aspects which had international level implications; a few of such facets are deliberated in succeeding lines. First facet is formulation of new countries due to wars many countries were annexed to the invading countries especially during the era of colonialism by Europeans from 1769 to 1947 (Ashok, 2013: 40) in Asia and Africa. The entrenchment of European colonial powers in the world wars provided many nations with the opportunity to get rid of the colonial masters and started achieving independence all across the Asia and Africa leading to independence and strengthening of many communities. Secondly the predominant factor of war led to technological advancement in all spheres of life; wars induced a scientific and industrial race including medicine, scientific equipment, communication infrastructure, military equipment and deadly weaponry culminating at hallmark of nuclear development first time by the U.S in 1945.Following the suit other powers also achieved the nuclear weaponry all across the globe. The nuclear capability possessed by a country kept the adversary at a bay to avoid the nuclear threshold. The battles fought during 1999 and 2008 between India and Pakistan; two arch nuclear rivals are the best example where the belligerents avoided the nuclear threshold and restricted to yearlong military standoff each time. It was due to the prevalent nuclear deterrence that obliged both nuclear belligerents to avoid each other's nuclear threshold.

PROVINCE OF DETERRENCE GUIDING TO INTERDEPENDENCE

Deterrence does not only exist between two adversaries with equal nuclear weapon capability but also exists between the countries where there is even no parity in nuclear capability. The nuclear deterrence not only provides safety but also improves the diplomacy by enhancing allies. Nuclear deterrence also provides opportunities for better development and expansion to countries possessing it. …

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