Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Invariance of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Measurement Model across Institutions in Malaysia

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Invariance of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Measurement Model across Institutions in Malaysia

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Organisations require employees to transcend the formal requisites of the job role and be capable to act as 'good soldiers'. OCB has a reflective impact on the performance of individuals in the organisations. Performance becomes amongst the most important factors for success and demarcates the top performers from the underachievers (Rotundo & Sackett, 2002). The term OCB was coined by Bateman and Organ in 1983 while in 1988 Organ defined it as, individual behaviour that is unrestricted, indirectly or ambiguously identified by the formal reward system and that, in the aggregate, supports the effective operation of the organisation. The three dimensions of OCB are helping, civic virtue and sportsmanship. Despite the popularity of OCB studies in industrial and organisational psychology, the measurement of OCB has received relatively limited consideration particularly in Malaysia (Lo & Ramayah, 2009). The purposes of this study are twofold: (1) to establish the construct validity of OCB and (2) to cross-validate its measurement invariance across institutions.

1.1 OCB Relationships with Other Constructs

In accordance with the relationships between OCB and other constructs, meta-analyses and reviews reveal that OCB is related with many indicators of organisational and group effectiveness (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997; Podsakoff, Whiting, Podsakoff, & Blume, 2009). Superiors auspiciously assess their employees' OCB in relation to their overall promotion and job performance (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Hui, 1993; Podsakoff et al., 2009). OCB also facilitates affirmative working surroundings, which attract and retain the employees of those particular organisations (Organ, 1988).

In addition, OCB promotes the functionality and effectiveness of a work unit or organisation so long as employees are educated on its importance. In support to this, Hoffman, Blair, Meriac, John and Woehr (2007) examined the relationships between task performance and OCB and attitudinal variables with OCB. Their results reveal that a one-dimensional OCB model relates to both variables with a strong relationship between OCB and attitudes.

1.2 OCB Relationships with Mediating Effects

Efficacious leadership may contribute to the progress of more vigorous perceptions of organisational and individual instrumentalities which then leads to OCB. In relation to this, Jiao, Richards and Zhang (2011) assessed how perceived organisational instrumentality (the belief that OCB contributes to the functionality and effectiveness of the work unit or organisation) and perceived individual instrumentality (the belief that the employees' own interests is important to OCB) related to the employees involvement in OCB and the ways in which it mediates the leadership effect on OCB among mid-sized financial company of 161 supervisor-subordinate dyads in China. The results show that perceived organisational instrumentality variance explained in OCB was beyond perceived individual instrumentality. In addition, perceived organisational and perceived individual instrumentalities are partially mediated the relationship between leadership (transformational leadership and contingent reward) and OCB.

1.3 Validating the OCB Measure

Few studies have sought to validate the OCB measure. Becker and Randall (1994) assessed the validity of OCB against an objective behavioural criterion after examining the factor structure of a revised version of OCB. Factor analysis suggests that this revised version of OCB has only conscientiousness and altruism dimensions. The results show that the 16 restaurant managers in the fast food service industry assess and perceive subtle components of job performance with reasonable accuracy. In addition, Hoffman et al. (2007) used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to determine OCB dimensionality and tested its construct validity. Their results support the idea that a single factor OCB model was strongly related to task performance although they are distinct to each other. …

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