Academic journal article Geopolitics, History and International Relations

Estimating the Hazards of Water Erosion by Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems in the Basin Daihachiga, Takayama City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan

Academic journal article Geopolitics, History and International Relations

Estimating the Hazards of Water Erosion by Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems in the Basin Daihachiga, Takayama City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan

Article excerpt

(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)

Introduction

The water and soil are considered critical factors in the economic, social, cultural and even political. The water and soil are the key elements in the process of agricultural production, and thus the continuation of humanity.

The water erosion causing soil erosion, and despoiled of mineral resources, leading to abandonment of the land, because of the damage left by the non-reclamation. As well as deposition of mud and deposits of gravel in the streams behind the dams to reduce the storage capacity of the water, leading to damage and disorder in the activity of water erosion within the main stream, causing the collapse of soil erosion on both sides of the channels.

Now, soil erosion threatens starvation for people or even its existence. Efforts have been made in order to protect the water supply and soil. Corrosion usually leads to decreasing in agricultural production.

At the present, the intensive use of resources causing intensive bargain between human and natural elements, leading to reassuring crises and unrest. Undoubtedly, an important factor of continuous development is accurate information, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) considered one of the most important tools for the management of resources, to prevent the bad effects of erosion, and their impacts on the surface of the land.

The GIS&RS find the way through the different areas in the world, development planning, resource management, studies and scientific projects. The combination between remote sensing techniques, geographic information systems and experimental models, resulted in modern methods for studying the natural resources, particularly projects related to erosion and sedimentation, through estimation the erosion capacity and drawing definitive maps of erosion and sedimentation, final giving accurate assessment of physical characteristics, such as soil erosion with in short time.

Study Area

The study area was the Daihachiga River basin (61.3 km2), the Jinzu River system, located in Takayama City of Gifu Prefecture, extends between latitudes 36° 09' 50" 36° 06' 07"North, and between longitudes 137° 15' 18" 137° 36' 59"East, a typical Japanese forested catchment under mountainous landscape in central Japan, located at the east of Takayama City in the northern part of Gifu Prefecture (Fig. 1). Upstream of river flows down from Hikagedaira Mountain (1595 m) and cross the urbanized area of Takayama City to connect with the right bank of the Miya River. About 19% of land cover of the river basin is bare soil included urbanized and cultivated areas, 41%, 2% and 37% are evergreen needle-leaf forest, deciduous needle-leaf forest and deciduous broad-leaf forest, respectively (Mahboob, 2013). Annual precipitation is about 1800 mm, and mean annual temperature of 10.63°C. Terrain height of the area is ranged from 600m~1600m, and mostly covered by broadleaf, artificially planted conifer and mixed forests (Kojima et al., 2008).

The Surface geological of Daihachiga River basin can be summarized as following properties (Geo. survey, Japan, 1989) (Fig. 2):

- Permian formations: cover almost the basin area, where approximately 34.70% of the total area, form the lowland, where the main streams breakthrough toward the outlet, it consist of limestone, basalt lava and tuff.

- Permian-Triassic formations; extend from the north east towards the south-west, as belt form upstream toward out let of basin with parallel secondary belts, cover about 32.81% of basin area, the chart represented these formations.

- Jurassic formations; appeared in watershed zone of the basin, it is constitute about 8.37% of basin area, these formations including two rock type, first consist of mélange including blocks of sandstone, chert, limestone, and basalt in muddy matrix. Ascend type consisted of massive sandstone; inter bedded sandstone, mudstone, and siliceous mudstone. …

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