Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Moderating Role of Perceived Justice in Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Evidence from Iran)

Academic journal article Review of European Studies

Moderating Role of Perceived Justice in Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Evidence from Iran)

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Discussion of justice and investigation of its form and nature date back to the creation of human being. It is one of the most controversial concepts in the present era. Thus, evaluation of effective factors in relation to the perception of justice and equality by the people in society namely in organizations can have crucial effect on prosperity of society in from each aspect. According to various studies regarding justice, many theorists including Aristotle, Plato, Kant, and Rawls have presented many theories in this regard the first definitions regarding justice are Plato and Aristotle's definitions (Mohammad et al., 2014). In most schools, the concept of justice is one of the fundamental principles with various definitions and perceptions.

The organizations are social systems and their sustainability depends upon the strong relation among the components and constituents. Establishment of justice can lead to coherence among these components. Indeed, it can be said that justice plays the role of coherence in organization (Marami, 2000).

Today, the world is a big organization and human relations in this world are interrelated, therefore the problems of a society in the global big community can affect other members. Thus, the concept of justice is applied in various types in organizations and institutions as justice in organizations (organizational justice), justice in legal system (judiciary justice), etc. However, in summary, all human communities require the spread of justice throughout the entire society. Thereafter, the investigation of this issue in service organizations as passenger companies including Metro in terms of providing service to a big society of citizens is of great importance.

Now, Metro Operation Company in Tehran gives services, daily, to more than 2 million people directly. While, indirectly, these services are offered to more than 5 Million people. Thus, investigating the relation between health and job satisfaction of employees of this company and the health of major population of citizens, and in turn the relationship between health of citizens and all aspects of social life in Tehran seem necessary. This investigation will necessarily include dealing with organizational and social behavior of the people in the society.

In line with the developments in technology and significance of human resources in 1990s, the justice researches began to investigate about the issues in relation with distributional justice, interactional justice, and procedural justice as the constituent dimensions of social justice. The following section provides a brief overview of each of these dimensions.

1.1 Distributive Justice

Distributive justice states the distribution of the costs and benefits among the people in the society. In other words, distributive justice emphasizes that the social rewards should be distributed among all to have fair social relations and to establish a justice-based society. Distributional justice has one of the four following forms in the writings of philosophers and theorists qualification-based distribution, fairness-based distribution, need-based distribution, and equality-based distribution (Mohammad et al., 2015).

1.2 Procedural Justice

In two recent decades, various studies have been conducted issuing procedural justice. This new theory eliminate the initial focus on equality and distribution but provides a new attitude on fairness and justice. Greenberg and Folger (1985) defined procedural justice as perceived fairness regarding applied procedures in taking decisions.

The initial focus of procedural justice in organizational behavior and management of human resources is the application of procedures to eliminate the challenges at work place. Thus, researchers mostly consider procedural justice regarding variety of issues related to work place such as personnel selection, reward allocation, procedures of performance evaluation, order delivery, reward systems, and participative decision making system. …

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