Academic journal article Journal of Marketing and Management

Employee Engagement in Relation to Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Information Technology Organizations

Academic journal article Journal of Marketing and Management

Employee Engagement in Relation to Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Information Technology Organizations

Article excerpt


In the current scenario, every organization is striving to increase its profits, impro ve the quality of goods and services, and improve customer satisfactio n with optimum resources. The IT Management has realized that having a strong brand, new products, and new technology alone does not help them get the winning edge over competitors. Organizations need the committed participation of a good majo rity of people so that the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization could be enhanced. The co llective loss to Ind ian IT organization due to regularly losing its employees is mind boggling. In the last couple of years, companies have realized tha t wages are important to employees, but compensation alone cannot motivate the highly skilled and experienced workforce. Managers would agree upo n the fact that employees make a critical difference when it comes to organizational performance, innovation and thus ultimately business success. Employees' role has beco me crucial as there is a shift from industrial to knowledge based society. The HR managers are laying the road map for the right working conditions which would inspire the employees to be engaged, give their best, go their extra mile and persist in the face of difficulties. The challenge faced by the management is therefore not just in retaining the talented employees, but in engaging them. Thus the HR coined the term "Emp loyee Engagement" when the organization takes measures for an engaged workforce, the profit and the productivity spikes.

On the other hand, d isengaged employee are typically uninterested in the job or o rganization they work for. As a result, their productivity decreases, their negativity increases, and their poor attitude spread like a virus throughout the organization. In a decent eco no my, these employees typically find a new employer where they regain interest and their productivity spikes (until they become disinterested six months later). In a bad economy, many o f these emp loyees stay put.

The second construct involved in this study is Organizational citizenship behavior which is an extra-role behavior that were not included in the formal job description, non- rewarded but which results in the effective running of the organization. More importantly, in keeping with Katz's original definition, OCB's has to be those behaviors that are ultimately beneficial to the effective functioning of the organization. While a worker co uld help his/her fellow employees, it would be considered as OCB if only it attempts to contrib ute to the effective functioning of the organization.

Employee Engagement, Commitment And Job Satisfaction

The origins of engagement could be traced back from various research literatures. Three promising antecedent variables are significant in the context o f employee engagement.(Brown & Leigh, 1996; Harter et al., 2002; Harter et al., 2003; Resick et al., 2007; Rhoades et al., 2001) These antecedent variab les were job fit (Resick, et al.,2007), affective commitment (Rhoades et al., 2001), and psychological climate (Brown &Leigh, 1996).

Though there appears to be overlap s in the concepts of emp loyee engagement, co mmitment and job satisfaction. Commitment and engagement are not co nsidered to be one and the same, whilst commitment is an important element o f engagement, engagement is considered to be more than just employee commitment. The closest relatio nship wit h engagement is "affective commitment' as exp lained by S ilverman(2004) This type of commitment emphasizes the satisfaction people get from their jobs and their colleagues and the willingness of employees to go beyond the call of the d uty for the good of the organization. This point is expanded upon by Meere(2005) who highlights that organizations must look beyond co mmitment and strive to impro ve engagement. An engaged employee is committed with the organization which is out of excitement and with a sense o f pride and joy whereas a committed employee is bound with the organization which could be an implication of being impelled and not out of voluntary choice. …

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