Academic journal article International Education Studies

Relationship between Academic Optimism and Classroom Management Styles of Teachers-Case Study: Elementary School Teachers in Isfahan

Academic journal article International Education Studies

Relationship between Academic Optimism and Classroom Management Styles of Teachers-Case Study: Elementary School Teachers in Isfahan

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Development of any society depends on the quality of education in the community. Education is as a widespread and pervasive system and is also a fundamental element of modern society. Classroom is as a social sub-system of the educational system having unique features and distinguishes it from other institutions and social organizations.

Learning and teaching will not be effective unless it is in a class that is well managed. The teacher plays multiple roles in the classroom that certainly one of the most important of which is classroom management. At an inappropriately-managed classroom, students and teachers will be damaged and students learn less than what is intended. Conversely, a well-managed classroom provides an environment that in which teaching and student learning will flourish the students. Classroom management is the first level of educational management and higher levels of management is the school administration, it is considered the zone management and the management of whole of educational system, and has fundamental impact on formation of education structure and teaching process and building the character and process of mental, emotional, education of the students (Sabbaghian, 2001). Amirnezhad (2010) believes that classroom management is one of the factors that teachers, administrators, and policy makers in education consider it as a main and important issue, that has been considered from past as a complex issue to improve the academic quality. Establishing and managing of the classroom is considered as the most time-consuming activities of the teachers. When most of the class time is spent on discipline problems, in practice less time for teaching and learning lessons would remain. Safavi (1948) considers the classroom management as leading the classroom through curriculum, organization of work and resources, organizing the environment to enhance the monitoring of student progress and predicting potential problems. In another definition, classroom management is the art of applying the special knowledge and use of classroom management skills in directing students towards the goals of the society. (www.sajadandishe.ir, 2014, p. 2). The classroom management includes the activities of the teacher to motivate the students and involve them, cause discipline and their participation in the learning process. Classroom management are every day skills in other words, each teacher learns the classroom management by effort and accuracy, but everyday experience. Academic progress of the students is of relation with the classroom management by teachers. Based on this, Martin, Shoho, and Yin (2003) believed that the first responsibility of the teacher is to manage the class so that he can provide the best environment for learning, and so that the students can achieve the academic progress. The purpose of the classroom management is to provide an environment so that the students are willing to learn and they do not feel they are forced to do so. Optimal management of class can have a major impact on student learning. In fact, the good management of the classroom has positive advantages for the students and at a larger scale for the education and society. However, Oliva (2000) wrote that the findings of Galop Institution show that the classroom management has been always one of the main important problems during 1970-1990. The classroom management is so important that some believe that one cannot study education (learning) and classroom management separately because both of them have impact in providing good conditions of the class (Samadi et al., 2008). Wolfgang and Glickman (1980) considered the class management as the efforts of the teacher to manage the activities of class including social interaction, students' behavior and learning and based on this they considered four aspects of education, communication, structure and psychological environment, at the class management. According to Wolfgang (2004), teachers form their behavior pattern at classroom management based on their beliefs about children's development and learning, that each behavior style pattern can have different aspects on the growth of the students. …

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