Academic journal article Journal of Psychological and Educational Research

The Prediction of Separation-Individuation through Internal-External Locus of Control in Turkish Late Adolescents

Academic journal article Journal of Psychological and Educational Research

The Prediction of Separation-Individuation through Internal-External Locus of Control in Turkish Late Adolescents

Article excerpt

Introduction

Separation-individuation is redefining the relationship between an individual and their caregivers such as mother and father by getting away from this addiction to their parents on their way to independence and autonomy. It is expected that adolescents separate from their parents at an increasing pace with the help of physical, cognitive, interpersonal and emotional developments during separation-individuation process. Cevikbas (2005) perceives the main issue, individuation, as seeing something as a unique item, a person, a character, enabling us to differentiate something from another thing, in other words being an individual. According to Blos (1989), an adolescent who is in the process of separation-individuation changes direction from dependence on parents to themselves. The nature of adolescents is changeable. This condition suggests that the personality of an adolescent is in the process of embodiment.

During adolescence, an individual encounters problems such as adjusting and taking decisions more often than they do in the other periods of life. An adolescent is a person who experiences a period of conflicts and inconsistency. Adolescence is especially different from other periods of life. An adolescent faces typical problems regarding less or more adjustment and decision taking in the later periods of life. At the same time, it becomes more significant for them to gain a place among their peers and also establish relationships with them rather than their parents. Studies have revealed that adolescents believe their parents misunderstand them. The feelings of adolescents undergo a transition period. Some adolescents always misperceive their feelings regarding their parents; some misperceive their feelings regarding their parents under some circumstances and about some issues; and some never misperceive their feelings regarding their parents (Horrocks, 1962).

Meanwhile, how individuals express themselves in terms of their gender also undergoes a change. According to psychoanalytic theory, there is a difference between males and females in that females are more intuitive and seem to be less interested in the outer world than males. Morale and empathy are important features for females because these characteristics enable them to realize their roles successfully. On the other hand, these features help males less in order to reach their goals. Therefore, socialization is the focal point for males (Deutsch, 1944; Erikson, 1975/1979, cited in Lennon & Eisenberg, 1987).

Freud described sexual energy as the main driving force behind an individual's behaviour and suggested a developmental model which includes an individual's transition from childhood to adolescence (Brandell & Ringel, 2007). Individuals often make an effort to establish a potential control over the amount and kind of information gained from an object or incident that they experience in many cases in their real lives (Davis & Phares, 1967). Internal and external locus of control concepts are derived from Rotter's Social Learning Theory. The Locus of Control concept is regarded as a consequence of an individual's behaviour in the first place. Individuals with internal locus of control believe events result from their own behaviour and actions whereas those with external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate or chance primarily determine events. Unlike individuals with internal locus of control, those with external locus of control have a negative assumption about success and they believe that their success is not achieved through their individual behaviours and actions (Rotter, 1954, 1966). Individuals with internal locus of control believe that willpower is related with causal connection of an individual's behaviour. On the other hand, those with external locus of control assume that willpower is independent from an individual's behaviour (Davis & Davis, 1972).

Individuals with internal locus of control show resistance to social influences and success activity while those with external locus of control exhibit defensiveness and have relatively more high anxiety (Phares & Lamiell, 1975). …

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