Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Family and Environmental Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Orientation of University Students

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Family and Environmental Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Orientation of University Students

Article excerpt

In the today's world entrepreneurship is one of the tools to achieve economic and social growth in human societies. Accordingly, universities have focused on entrepreneurship in recent decades so that entrepreneurship along with education and research has become as one of the missions of the higher education system. Therefore, university students and graduates are expected to get prepared and gain needed skills for entrepreneurship and participation in entrepreneurship projects. In other words, students are required to follow an entrepreneurial approach in order to find employment. Given the significance of the issue, the research on entrepreneurship accounts for a wide area of behavioral sciences including management, economics, sociology, and psychology. Such studies have presented a number of views, theories and models on entrepreneurship. Besides, some practitioners have used psychological, cultural, social, and economic ideas and social networks (Kordnaeej et ah, 2007).

Ahmadpour Dariani and Moghimi (2007) have investigated two approaches of psychological and behavioral characteristics. Psychological characteristics include features such as positive mental states, the need for success, willingness to take risk, willingness for creativity and innovation, the spirit of invincibility, internal locus of control, and the need for independence. According to McKland, entrepreneurial features include achievement motivation, risk-taking, internal locus of control, creativity, and independence (Ahmadi et al., 2012).

The main purpose of the researchers and professional who have focused on the psychological entrepreneurial approach is to identify individuals who are potentially entrepreneurs in order to make the most of their talents and capabilities through supporting and directing them in educational systems, the society, and the market (Nemati, 2013).

Entrepreneurial approaches can be defined as individuals' or institutes' willingness and orientation to become entrepreneurs. In other words, the desire to create a new business with innovation refers to an entrepreneurial approach. In this regard, practitioners have mentioned various properties.

Nemati (2013) enumerated five major personality characteristics of entrepreneurs including the locus of control, creativity, ambiguity tolerance, risk-taking, and seeking achievement. The locus of control means how a person contributes positive and negative results of his actions to others or themselves. Besides, creativity refers to the extent to which a person leads his thoughts to different directions. Ambiguity tolerance is also important in the sense that one can accept uncertainty and live with it. Risk-taking means to take risk in one's actions. Finally, seeking achievement means that the extent to which one is willing to make progress (Nemati, 2013).

According to Mousavi Mashhadi (2003), an entrepreneur is an innovative, creative, risk-taking, responsible, realistic, and growth-oriented person. Another factor that is related to the entrepreneurship personality is the willingness to risk-taking among entrepreneurs. The willingness to take risk is the acceptance of moderate risks that can be controlled through personal effort (Ahmadpour Dariani, 1998).

According to Ahmadpour, in addition to personality traits, entrepreneur is affected by other factors with a social and cultural nature that are referred to as the behavioral approach. In this approach, in addition to personality factors, environmental factors and behavioral characteristics are also taken into account. Such features are divided into two groups: characteristics related to the history of a person and experimental characteristics. Factors relate to the history of a person include childhood conditions, education, and his/her social status. Empirical characteristics include role patterns of family, friends, and trusted people as the role models (Ahmadpour Dariani & Moghimi, 2007).

Although in the past it was believed that entrepreneurs possess inherent features, numerous studies have shown that entrepreneurship characteristics can be taught. …

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