Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Political and Social Reflection of Post-Colonial Kazakhstan in Translations of American Literature (on the Basis of the Works by Jusupbek Aimautuly and Jack London)

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Political and Social Reflection of Post-Colonial Kazakhstan in Translations of American Literature (on the Basis of the Works by Jusupbek Aimautuly and Jack London)

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

The beginning of the XX century was one of the most crucial stage in the history for the Kazakh people. Rightful heir of the Golden Horde Khanate in Central Asia, Saks generation by Herodotus records - the Kazakh people were under colony of the Soviet Union because of different historical events and it has known during more than hundred years. Kazakh and Russian relationship worsened over time because of different religion, language, traditions and customs consciousness of life. The pressure for the Kazakh people was the cause of unity intelligentsia and opposition to the policy of colonization and their strong desire for freedom. The Kazakh intelligentsia founded "Alashorda" party that aimed at the country's freedom in 1917. Alikhan Bokeikhanov who was descendant of Genghis Khan was a leader of "Alashorda" that fought hard for the Kazakh people's freedom. Because of invasion, humiliation and violence of the Soviet Union to the Kazakh people there appeared a threat for preservation the Kazakhs as a nation. Settling the best places by Russian farmers and the genocide against the Kazakhs were the cause of difficulties of political situation for representatives of Alashorda and the authorities of the Soviet Union (Kendirbaeva, 1999).

However, Russian power did not refuse from their actions such as strict rules and violence to Kazakhs. They grabbed the land of nomads and stole their cattle; as a result they created unprecedented hand-made famine in the Kazakh field. By the beginning of the 20th century economic and social problems caused by the Russian colonization of Kazakhstan had reached a critical point. People who were against Russia's sovereignty and law were deported and arrested. It was a cause to develop actions of underground policy connected with religion and language. Kazakh scholar of the history of Kazakhstan M.Koigeldi says: "... the genocide in Kazakhstan led to hunger and aimless moving, of the Kazakh people. Kazakh steppe was full of sobbing mothers, crying children and smell of the death. All these were the result of the Bolsheviks' experiment in the Kazakh place" (Koigeldiyev & Omarbekov, 1993).

During these difficult times, one of the important representative of the Kazakh intelligentsia who defended the interests of the nation's, a member of the Alashorda Party (founded in 1917) writer, essayist, critic, founder of psychology in Kazakh and translator, Jusupbek Aimautuly created an invaluable legacy to posterity. He was the first who translated the American literature into the Kazakh language. He died for the independence of the Kazakhs. By translating world classical works, he wanted to avoid Russian censorship and to represent his views to his nation, being the best in translating and using such kind of techniques. Representative of Kazakh literature G.Musrepov said: "I have not met such an educated, gifted, person as Jusupbek Aimautuly. I know Jusupbek as a great musician, scientist, a talented founder of the artistic criticism" (Anyz Adam, 2014). Outstanding person of the Kazakh prose, writer Beimbet Mailin says "I have never seen such a skillful writer as Jusupbek Aimautuly"" (Anyz Adam, 2014). When there was any conversation about Jusupbek Aimautuly, the whole Kazakh intelligentsia mentioned his knowledge and talent, hard work and love for the people, for his nation. Whatever he did, everything was for the nation. Jusupbek Aimautuly described the situation in the Kazakh steppe through his translations and he tried to show his thoughts about the Kazakh people. Aimautuly chose the high-quality works in order to reflect his opinion through wonderful translations. Jusupbek Aimautuly translated Jack London's "The strength of the strong" and "Unparalleled invasion" which were popular in the Russian translation.

The most important question of the research is why Jusupbek Aimautuly translated Jack London's stories? How did the works of the representative of American literature, Jack London, influenced in unknown way the Kazakh's spirit? …

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