Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Intergenerational Bonding in Family and School Contexts: Which Does Impact More on Degree Aspiration of Students?

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Intergenerational Bonding in Family and School Contexts: Which Does Impact More on Degree Aspiration of Students?

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

To identify the academic outcomes of students, intergenerational bonding typically has been studied in terms of parent-child relationship. We further argue that other types of intergenerational bonding are also affecting the academic achievement of students. For instance, in schools, adolescents regularly interact with their teachers who can serve as mentors, models of good behavior and sources of support for the students (Pianta, Steinberg, & Rollins, 1995). Our study focuses on intergenerational bonding, examining students' general feelings about their teachers which is based on the past research of Sanders and Jordan (2000) and Steinberg, Brown & Dornbusch (1996). Relationship is the initial source of bonding in which many factors underlie to sustain the links between the agents. Relationships have been extensively studied in many contexts such as schools and families to identify the educational benefits of students. In this respect, a number of literature demonstrates how the alienation of students contributes to their academic problems and conversely, how integration of students contributes to academic improvement. Interdisciplinary literature on adolescents' academic achievement suggests that students' affective tie with teachers promotes a favorable environment of learning and this communal learning environment transmits social capital from teachers to students (Birch & Ladd, 1998; Pianta et al., 1995). From the basis of this theory, we can expect that positive relationship between teachers and students serves as a protective force for students, which encourages them to continue schooling instead of being early dropouts from school. On the other hand, the lower risk of early school dropout increases the level of educational aspiration of students.

Coleman and Hofer (1987) observe that the structural elements of schools, sector (public and private) and class size, are relevant to form the interpersonal relationships between teachers and students. They found that the intimacy between teachers and students occur more in private schools compared to public schools causing an improvement in the academic achievement of the students in the private schools.The attachment theory by Bowlby (1969) explains that students with positive relationships with their teachers consider their schools as more secure and they feel safer in schools. Meanwhile the Self-System theory emphasizes the importance of positive relationships between teachers and students (Harter, 2012; McCombs, 1986). Scholars argue that adolescents go to school to improve three basic psychological needs which are competence, autonomy and relatedness. Competence denotes the students' need to feel capable of their academic work. Autonomy refers to the ability to make decisions and relatedness implies the motivation of social connectedness to the teachers. Positive relationships with teachers can meet these needs for students.

Conventional sociological and psychological models demonstrate that a positive parent-child relationship promotes academic outcomes of students as do teacher-student bonding (Englund, Egeland, & Collins, 2008; Spera, 2005). Although both parent-child and teacher-student relationships, enhance students' academic outcome, the literature is not much evident on how these two bondings directly impact students' degree aspiration which aims to examine this study. Our other objective is to identify, between parent-child bonding, and teacher-student bonding which has more effect on students' degree aspiration outcome.

1.1 Teacher-Student Relationship and Academic Outcomes

Among agents which have trajectory roles in the academic attainment of students, teachers are the foremost at all levels of schooling. In this respect, the attachment theory (Ainsworth, 1982; Bowlby, 1969) posits that students feel safe and secure in schools when they have a positive relationship with their teachers which in turn enhances their academic skills because, when a positive relationship is formed between them, classrooms generally become a supportive space which improves students' academic engagement. …

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