Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Effects of Self-Efficacy in the Relationship between Environmental Factors, and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

Academic journal article Asian Social Science

Effects of Self-Efficacy in the Relationship between Environmental Factors, and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Cigarette consumption is recognized as a significant public health problem throughout the world (Dhalewadikar, 2014; Reisi et al., 2014). Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous negative effects and is a major contributor to the death of people as a result of chronic illnesses (Ramezankhani et al., 2010; Center for Prevention and Disease Control, 2006). Cigarette smoking is widely considered as a risk factor for the development of lung cancer and other chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases), which are related to higher mortality rates (Hsin-Chieh, 2010). Based on the reports from World Health Organization (WHO), almost 5.4 million people die each year as a result of cigarette smoking. It is expected that this figure will increase to 10 million by the year 2025 (WHO, 2011). According to WHO (2011), cigarette smoking is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. If this trend continues, the mortality rate related to cigarette smoking will rise to 8-10 million people by the year 2030. According to WHO statistics, more than one billion people are addicted to different kinds of cigarette, which has approximately increased tenfold compared with the 20th century (WHO, 2011).

Cigarette smoking almost always starts during adolescence (Poorasl et al., 2011; Redonnet et al., 2012). Cigarettes smoking can directly affect physical, emotional, spiritual, and social wellbeing, as well as the development of individuals (Sally, 2009; Mee, 2009). Hence, as suggested by Steinberg (2010) and Johnston et al. (2013), if teenagers can be prevented from starting to smoke during their high school years, they will probably never start smoking. In adolescence, cigarette smoking is the first step to addiction and those who smoke regularly stand a higher risk of addiction to other drugs (Poorasl et al., 2011; Ramezankhani et al., 2010).

Smoking has been described by WHO (2011) as an epidemic in most of the emerging countries. According to American Cancer Society (2006), approximately 80 percent of the 1.3 billion smokers throughout the world live in developing countries. It is estimated that death rates attributed to cigarette use will double in developing countries between the years 2002-2030 (Nakhaee et al., 2011; Poorasl et al., 2011). Based on the prognosis of the WHO, in 2015, cigarettes will cause 50 percent more deaths than the HIV/AIDS virus, and 10 percent of deaths in the world will somewhat contribute to cigarette smoking (Nakhaee et al., 2011).

Iran has 15 million adolescents, and therefore is considered as having one of the youngest populations in the world. A great number of studies showed increasing tendencies of smoking among Iranian adolescents (Poorasl et al., 2011; Karimy et al., 2012). According to the statistics from WHO (2009), the frequency of adolescents' smoking in Iran is 26.9%. Nearly 71% of the smokers in Iran have been reported to have their first smoking experience during their adolescence (Nazemi, 2011).

The present study took Kerman, which is one of the biggest provinces in Iran, as the target location of the study. Previous findings have reported that the prevalence of cigarette smoking among the male and female adolescents in Kerman is 39.9% and 25.5%, respectively (Nakhaee et al., 2011). Due to the high level of adolescent cigarette smoking in Kerman, leading to a critical condition, the researcher felt a need for conducting research in this area.

Hence, this research was designed to study the environmental factors of peer pressure and family smoking (parents' smoking and siblings' smoking) in relation to adolescent cigarette smoking habits. Also, the present study investigated the moderating impacts of self-efficacy on the link between environmental factors and adolescent cigarette smoking.

In the context of Iran and especially the province of Kerman, very few studies have explored the direct relationship between cigarette smoking behavior among adolescents and peer pressure and family smoking. …

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