Academic journal article International Journal of English Linguistics

Concepts of Borrowings in Modern Science of Linguistics, Reasons of Borrowed Words and Some of Their Theoretical Problems in General Linguistics

Academic journal article International Journal of English Linguistics

Concepts of Borrowings in Modern Science of Linguistics, Reasons of Borrowed Words and Some of Their Theoretical Problems in General Linguistics

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

In the development of many languages of the mankind there exist a number of extra linguistic and intra linguistic factors. Among them, are the coordinations among the languages and borrowings.

In the modern French language, in the process of borrowing by the lexical way, the languages of other peoples establish a rich source. It is clear that since the formation of human society, the people were in interrelation with one another in the form of collectives-tribes, dynasties, peoples and nations, they set up relations with one another and continuously these relations developed. In these relations being sometimes in the form of sometimes struggles and wars, trade, and culture etc and in attitudes among the people played a main role. Consequently the words, being different word forms of the same notions began to transfer from one language into the other one.

As many peoples of the world, French people too, being in close relations and attitudes with different peoples of the world in different levels, from the languages of these peoples, thousands of words passed into the French language. This process, being one of the main factors in the enrichment of the lexics of the French language, at present too is continuously going on.

Words having transferred from the other languages, partially lose some of the characteristics of the original languages in the atmosphere of the new language and accept some of the features of the language into which they enter some of them even change so much that they assume unrecognizable form.

2. Scope of the Study

Borrowings play a great role in the languages. At present there is not a single language, the vocabulary of which consists of its own words. If there is one, that means that it not a developed language. Associated with modern development peoples of the world are economically, scientifically, economically, politically are closely connected with one another. This process creates a background for approaching the languages closer to one another, resulting in borrowing words from one another.

In a situation, like this we should just quote from G. Vandersen, who wrote: "It can never happen so, that any language without being subjected to the influence of any other language could develop. On the contrary, the influence of the neighboring languages played a great role in its development". Mutual enrichment of languages is a historical inevitability and these ties obligatorily brought to the enrichment of each of these languages (Bangruce, 1917).

Similar to these thoughts before Vandries were told by G. A. Boduen do Kourtune and G. Sukhardt stating that the problem of Interrelations of languages as a result of mutually enrichment today has acquired special actuality. A number of scientists have widely learned the problem of mutual enrichment practically and theoretically. Among these scientists, people living in the near and Far East, including the representation of our national linguistics have taken active participation in these investigations. We'd think it necessary to mention the names of some of them. Among them are: A. A. Vershagin, B. V. Gornung, G. D. Desheriyev, V. M. Semchinski, G. A. Uluktenko, A. E. Kerminski, L. P. Krisin, A. A. Reformatski, B. A. Serebrennikov, G. S. Stepanov, L. V. Sherba, V. M. Jartseva and others. The scientists of foreign countries have also made their contributions to the study of mutual relations among the languages. Among them U. Wineright, A. Vashek, B. Qavranen, L. Doruna, A. Martine, E. Petrovich, A. Rosetti, K. Sandfild, O. Savajo, G. Shukhardt, E. Khaugen and others. In our national linguistics scientists such as B. Budaqov, A. S. Damirchizadeh, B. S. Hasanov, H. A. Hasanov, B. B. Ismayilov, M. Musayev, R. S. Jabbarov, A. Y. Zahidi, and others, unknown to us were engaged in the problems of Borrowings.

If we repeat the words of A. Martiken, thanks to the contacts among the languages the mutual influence of language on one another, is one of the strongest stimulus (Martine, 1960). …

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