Academic journal article Journal of Cultural Diversity

Cultural Self-Efficacy of Second-Degree Nursing Students in Providing Care to Immigrants

Academic journal article Journal of Cultural Diversity

Cultural Self-Efficacy of Second-Degree Nursing Students in Providing Care to Immigrants

Article excerpt

Increasing cultural diversity among health-care consumers in the United States (U.S.) has had a significant impact on health-care outcomes and quality of care. This necessitates the development of healthcare services capable of meeting the needs of diverse healthcare consumers. Consequently, culturally congruent care is viewed as one of the most important facets of patient-centered care. Registered Nurses (RN) are the largest group of health care professionals. As such, RÑs play an essential role in the delivery of culturally congruent care. The ability of RNs to respond appropriately to the culturally specific needs of the increasingly diverse healthcare consumer body is to a large extent influenced by their levels of cultural self-efficacy; higher levels of cultural self-efficacy are believed to increase an RN's ability to provide culturally congruent care and vise versa. The assessment of cultural self-efficacy of nursing students is an essential step in the evaluation of their ability to provide culturally congruent care as they enter the workforce.

RESEARCH PURPOSE

The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of perceived cultural self-efficacy of senior students in second-degree pre-licensure nursing programs in the provision of culturally appropriate care to immigrants. Second-degree pre-licensure nursing programs are academic programs that provide nursing education at the baccalaureate or higher level leading to licensure as a registered nurse for students who hold undergraduate or graduate degrees in disciplines other than nursing. The research question guiding the study was as follows: What are the levels of perceived cultural self-efficacy of senior students in second-degree pre-licensure nursing programs in the provision of culturally appropriate care to Mexican, Chinese and Indian immigrants?

BACKGROUND

The results of the U.S. decennial censuses show that the country is becoming increasingly diverse. Current demographic projections indicate that the proportion of minority racial and ethnic groups in the total U.S. population will exceed 40% by the year 2025 (Rutledge, Barham, Wiles, & Benjamin, 2008). Foreign immigration continues to be among the most significant contributors to the growing diversity of U.S. society. Presently, nearly 13% of U.S. residents are foreign born (Grieco et al., 2012). Demographic data indicate that foreign immigration adds more than one million individuals to the total U.S. population every year (Giger at al., 2007). This means that the percentage of foreign-bom residents will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Currently, the largest settler groups in the U.S. are the immigrants of Mexican, Chinese and Indian origin (Walters & Trevelyan, 2011).

Cultural beliefs are a major determinant of the way healthcare consumers' access and utilize healthcare services. As such, culture has a major impact on the health of the population. Multiple authors have identified immigrant and minority status as a major cause of disparities in health status and ability to access to health-care services (Borrell, 2009; Derose, Escare & Lurie, 2007; Hayward, Miles, Crimmins & Yang, 2000; Jasso, Massey, Rosenzweig & Smith, 2004; Scnnittker, Pescolikeo & Croghan, 2005). Clearly, immigrants and minority groups nave unique health needs tnat can be met only through culturally congruent care.

Multiple nursing theorists ana practice leaders have recognized that RNs, as the largest professional group in health care, must be able to provide culturally congruent care to diverse groups of healthcare consumers (Anderson, Calvillo, & Fongwa, 2007; DeSantis & Lipson, 2007; Calvillo et al., 2009; Spector, 2009). The growing awareness of the importance of culturally congruent care has resulted in an emergence of transcultural nursing as a distinct practice ana study area within the discipline of nursing.

The concept of cultural self-efficacy is grounded in Bandura's (1977; 1997) theory of self-efficacy. …

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