Academic journal article Business and Economics Research Journal

Exploring the Relationship between Ethical Leadership and Job Satisfaction with the Mediating Role of the Level of Loyalty to Supervisor

Academic journal article Business and Economics Research Journal

Exploring the Relationship between Ethical Leadership and Job Satisfaction with the Mediating Role of the Level of Loyalty to Supervisor

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

There is a need and a growing interest to understand the incentive factors that affect the workforce within the framework of satisfaction of employees in higher education like as other profit-based industries and services (Toker, 2011:156). Job satisfaction of the academic staff is a very important issue for the future of the rapidly developing economies (Khalid et al., 2012: 127) especially like Turkey.

It is a fact that to gain international competitive advantage, the only way is to focus on scientific research and development. For this aim, universities are brought together with the industries on a common ground for training of skilled labour needed in all sectors for economic and social development of a country. This makes the universities the biggest source of professional labour. Every type of organization needs this labour for a sustainable success. Of course academic staffs as employees play the significant key role on this process of training the labour and developing new technologies and information. Therefore it is required to maintain the job satisfaction of the academic staffs consistently high. On the other hand, in a big organization as if university, all staffs need a leader that maintain ethical standards which are establishing a suitable work environment. As Kennerly (1989) stated, leadership and employee job satisfaction are the two fundamental factors influencing the organization effectiveness and productivity.

Additionally, we also know from management theory that emphasizes the importance of coordinating of the organization - human relationship to enhance the productivity (Kim, 2002: 232). Focusing on productivity, scholars extensively researched in the literature both on the topics employees' job satisfaction (Fix & Sias, 2006; Ghazi et al., 2010; Gruneberg & Startup, 1978; Kim, 2009; Malik, 2011; Morgan et al., 1995; Oshagbemi, 1997; Sari, 2004; Top & Gider, 2013; Wright, 2006), and leadership styles (Bogler, 2001; Lok and Crawford, 2004; Zhu et al., 2004).

The issue of employee job satisfaction is important for both in the field of organisational psychology and in management (Oshagbemi, 1999a: 108). Among the various factors are affecting academic staffs' job satisfaction (Lacy & Sheehan, 1997; Santhapparaj & Alam, 2005; Schulze, 2006; Ssesanga & Garrett, 2005), we decided to focus on the relationship between the supervisor and the academic staff in this research. As Wasti and Can (2008) stated, commitment to supervisor has been proposed to be a better predictor of supervisor related outcomes. Thus, this variable also must be investigated in this relationship. Then this study investigates the relationship between leadership behaviour (that we focused on ethical leadership here) and job satisfaction with the mediator role of employees' loyalty to supervisor.

In this point, academic stuffs' loyalty to their supervisors is investigated as the mediator variable. In other words it is the explanatory mechanism that sheds light on the nature of the relationship that exists between leadership behaviour and job satisfaction. In mechanisms like this if no such relationship exists, then there is nothing to be mediated (Mathieu and Taylor, 2006: 1038).

It is understood from the literature review that the number of studies related to the job satisfaction among academics (Lacy & Sheehan, 1997; Long, 2005; Okpara et al., 2005; Oshagbemi, 1999a; Oshagbemi, 2000a; Oshagbemi, 2000b; Santhapparaj & Alam, 2005; Schulze, 2006; Sloane & Ward, 2001; Ssesanga & Garrett, 2005) has increased in recent years (Mustapha, 2013: 245). In general, from the studies focusing on job satisfaction of academics, it can be demonstrated that academics are generally satisfied with their works (Eyupoglu & Saner, 2009: 610). However, as Oshagbemi (1999a: 109) stated, none of these studies were involving the role of the supervisors on the satisfaction of academics although Mehboob et al. …

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