Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

The Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events (PCPE): Development, Validity and Reliability

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

The Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events (PCPE): Development, Validity and Reliability

Article excerpt

Among psychological interventions for depression, "Behavioral Activation" (BA) has a well-known reputation for its effective role. Several recent meta-analyses (1, 2, 3, 4) have comprehensively documented the efficacy of BA treatments for depression. Pleasant Activity Monitoring and Scheduling (PAMS) is identified as one of the core components of BA along with the assessment of life goals and values, skills training, relaxation training, contingency management, procedures targeting verbal behavior, and procedures targeting avoidance (5). Typically, PAMS serves two functions: Providing information on baseline pleasant activity levels and related moods to inform specific activation assignments, and demonstrating the treatment rationale to the client that there is a meaningful relationship between pleasant activities and mood. In some cases, detailed procedures were also employed to track the relation between activities and mood, including graphs and printouts of the relations that were provided to clients (6).

Nevertheless, different studies have indicated that PAMS could have positive impacts on reduction of different problematic behaviors including smoking (7), binge eating (8), and ruminative thoughts (9) besides facilitations for cognitive restructuring (10, 11) and significant decrease in depressive symptoms (12, 13, 14).

To implement PAMS, different forms of BA e.g. (15, 16, 17, 6) can be used to train the clients to monitor and schedule their pleasant activities, using Pleasant Events Schedule (PES; 18), a comprehensive list of pleasant activities, or its shortened version either alone or in conjunction with more personal schedules .

The original English version of PES contains 320 items as a self-report inventory of the frequency of occurrence and subjective pleasantness of typically pleasant or rewarding events over the last month. Although since its development PES has been used in several fields of study (cited by 307 references, for examples please see: 19-22), it is highly culture-bounded and could be considered out of date 30 years after its development. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a more updated and culturally compatible checklist of pleasant events, which could be used as a pleasant activity monitoring tool in Iranian population.

Materials and Method

Ethical issues:

The study has been conducted after providing sufficient explanation to the participants and obtaining their informed consent. All data are kept confidential and no person will have access to information except

Participants:

One hundred twenty-eight participants (female: n = 66) were selected from individuals over 18 years of age who lived in Tehran. The mean age of the participants was 32.3 years (SD = 9.08 years). Twenty-four individuals (female = 12) participated in our three focused group discussions (FGDs) (each with 8 participants), and 104 individuals (female = 54) were asked to complete the Persian Checklist of Pleasant Events developed during FGDs. The participants were recruited using snowball and convenience sampling; all participated voluntarily and without compensation after an oral consent. Also, they were assured of the anonymity of the data.

Measures:

Demographic Questionnaire: All Participants were asked to report their demographic data in a researcher-made questionnaire. The required data consisted of age, sex and marital status, number of children, education, job and income. At the end of the demographic questionnaire, the participants were asked two questions: 1. Do you consider yourself as a playful person? (The response options were yes/no); 2. Please rate your happiness on a 0-100 point scale.

Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): The DASS is a 21-item self-report instrument measuring three main negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress (23). Each of the three subscales consists of seven items; all scored on 0 to 3 scale (range: 0 to 21 for each of the subscales) (23). …

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