Academic journal article Outlines : Critical Practice Studies

Everyday Life and Public Elementary School in Brazil: A Critical Psychological Intervention Model

Academic journal article Outlines : Critical Practice Studies

Everyday Life and Public Elementary School in Brazil: A Critical Psychological Intervention Model

Article excerpt

Initial Considerations

The significance of everyday life is often understated, but it is in the day-to-day activities in which we can identify the themes and dynamics that have the greatest impact on the trajectory of history. Indeed, unless facts and ideas are integrated into everyday life, they often have little impact. However, we have the ability to positively affect our societies by understanding which components are central to these dynamics, and changing them for the better. The study of everyday life is central to psychology, as it provides an intermediate link between society and the individual; between historical context and the components of a particular time and space. It is also the intersection of individual capacity and circumstantial restriction. Our concern lies with everyday life for two core reasons. Firstly, it is the space where social inequality is produced, normalized, and justified (Jost & Hunyady, 2002). As Kosik (1976) states, daily individual activity is not neutral - it is a projection of the aspirations and interests of a specific social class. The normativity of this inequality renders it invisible (Kahneman & Miller, 1986). Therein rests our second concern: that naturalized inequality will be embedded in developmental processes, widening the gap - psychologically and financially - between those with privilege and those without. Everydayness creates an environment conducive to land alienation due to spontaneous assimilation of constitutive dominant norms. We differentiate here everydayness from everyday life that, according to Lefebvre (1979), is natural for capitalist life's reproduction implying the characteristics of the generic mode of life actions. Thus, we can see how the economic structure of a society, carried out in our everyday lives, radiates into all spheres of existence by producing alienation (Kosik, 1976).

Under conditions of social inequality we understand that people are born into various different social groups, in which gender, social class, ethnicity, or any other arbitrary conditions convey different expectations in terms of what is necessary for one to learn and develop. It is these social norms that moderate the choices we are able to make day-to-day (Burman, 1996). Taught by cultural institutions, such as family and school, the customs, norms and ethics of the group - the patterns that embody their social position - are reinforced. People operate in everyday life as natural beings seeking to meet particular need.

This project has two focus questions: What social norms are being constructed and transmitted by these institutions, given their limitations? And how does the context of the Brazilian public education affect child development? To provide some context, we illustrate how Brazilian society is organized, the political discourses behind education, and the consequences of so-called economic and social improvements to date (Pochmann, 2012).

Within these problematic norms and discourses a central feature of everyday life can be identified: The articulation of people as unique, singular and particular instead of linking their action and thought to mankind. Lukács (1966) claims that beyond its immediacy and its spontaneity, everyday life makes us always deal with the appearances of the emerging demands, which prevents us from go beyond the narrower dimension of everyday life toward what belongs to the more generic dimension of being human. This characteristic is established in constant tension with the possibilities of change, which can only be realized by the people's effective action in the world - as objectification that is in constant transformation.

Brazilian Social Life and Public Policies affecting Education: A Fundamentally Mercantile Perspective

According to the SAE (2013), there has been a decrease in the proportion of the lower socio-economic system (lower class or 'poor') and an increase in the so-called middle class in Brazil. …

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