Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of PreSchool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Determination and Interpretation of the Norm Values of PreSchool Social Skills Rating Scale Teacher Form

Article excerpt

That a child is raised to exhibit behaviors as expected by the society depends on social development. In this respect, childrens social development in their early years constitutes the basis of their future social behaviors (Çubukçu & Gültekin, 2000). Social and emotional development is the process of learning the skills, approaches, and values that individuals develop to gain social and emotional competence (Elias et al, 1997).

The most important person in teaching social skills is the teacher, who uses various strategies to teach the skills necessary for establishing and maintaining relationships with peers, self-control, adaptability to the environment, maintaining work in a group, coping with aggressive behaviors and stress, devising plans, and problem solving. Teachers achieve success in helping children internalize rules using positive guidance techniques and becoming models of inspiration themselves (Wortham, 1998). Furthermore, teachers who undertake new professional roles and responsibilities brought about by changing and developing educational processes around the world not only teach but also develop values, conduct research, overcome challenges, establish interdisciplinary relations, question, produce, and attach importance to communication and advice. However, overall, instructors should first engage in self-development to teach children social skills (Çivitçi & Çivitçi, 2009).

Developing childrens personal and social as well as academic skills is among the fundamental goals of teachers who potently interact with children and are responsible for teaching them basic knowledge, skills, behaviors, and habits (Akkök, 2006).

In this process, the teacher determines objectives with regard to social skills, checks learning groups, determines necessary special skills for children working together to solve problems, obtains childrens opinions to be able to develop group work, lists social skills to be taught in each group, and analyzes required social skills in a particular subject. Furthermore, the teacher observes and records childrens social skills. Teacher behaviors constitute the basis of behavioral examples of children with their friends in preschool education institutions. Teachers also mold the experiences for children to develop their speaking skills, respect others' rights, wait in a queue, conflict resolution, to solve social problems, and develop empathy in oneself (Beaty, 2006, cited in Kamaraj, 2008; $im$ek, Doymuy & $im§ek, 2008).

According to Sanders and Rivers (1996), teacher qualifications include professional capability, knowledge of the state of education, field knowledge, teaching experiences, and social capabilities. In addition, organizational planning and teaching approaches, occupational professionalism, and social skills have come to the fore in recent years as skills that teachers must possess (as cited in Seven & Yolday 2007). Teachers are expected to be emotionally and socially sensitive while handling childrens social problems and concerns (Yüksel, 2001).

Many studies have determined that social skills training in preschool education has positive effects on childrens social skills. In social skill training programs, the use of modeling, guidance, behavioral repetitions, participating, feedback, and reinforcement skills are among behavioral strategies for developing special social skill reactions (Gresham, 1981,1985; McIntosh, Vaughn, & Zaragoza, 1991; Verduyn, Lord, & Forrest, 1990).

In addition, social skills and the quality of social capabilities can be increased through studies aimed at increasing social capabilities. At the preschool stage, assessment of social skills has particular importance. Many methods such as direct behavioral observation, grading scales, self-assessment, and sociometry are used in assessment of social skills (Kapikiran, îvrendi, & Adak, 2006). After assessment, it is possible to try different solutions to eliminate childrens social deficiencies and develop their social skills. …

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