Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Is Learning by Teaching Effective in Gaining 21st Century Skills? the Views of Pre-Service Science Teachers

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Is Learning by Teaching Effective in Gaining 21st Century Skills? the Views of Pre-Service Science Teachers

Article excerpt

Rapid developments in science and technology have caused changes in the needs and expectations of society. In analyzing these needs and expectations, the area of "quality education" is a key subject. In particular, it raises the question of which competences an individuals in 21st century societies should have. These expected individual skills, termed 21st century skills, are described in terms of knowledge, skills, and expertise (National Research Council [NRC], 2010; Partnership for 21st Century Learning, 2015). These skills are further deconstructed and placed into the categories of life and career skills, learning and innovation skills, and digital literacy skills (Partnership for 21st Century Learning, 2015; Trilling & Fadel, 2009). Life and career skills contain the criteria for evaluating the performances of employees according to their general quality of work, flexibility, adaptability, entrepreneurship, self-directedness, social and intercultural skills, efficiency, accountability, leadership, and responsibility. Learning and innovation skills include the skills of focused critical thinking, problem solving, communication, cooperation, creativity, and innovation, all of which are essential for unlocking lifelong learning and productivity. Digital literacy skills involve information, media, and technology. Information literacy includes the skills to find, assess, use and manage knowledge; media literacy includes the skills to analyze and create media products; technology literacy includes knowing how to use technology effectively (Kögce, Özpinar, Mandaci $ahin, & Aydogan Yenmez, 2014; Partnership for 21st Century Learning, 2015; Trilling & Fadel, 2009). An important issue facing educators is how to provide individuals with effective learning opportunities so that they may gain and retain the above-mentioned skills. One such teaching method was developed for foreign language lessons by Jean-Pol Martin in the early 1980s, called Lernen durch Lehren (LdL) in German, or Learning by Teaching in English (Karakaya, 2007; Martin & Kelchner, 1998; Skinner, 1994). This method was designed to effectively and efficiently aid individuals in gaining the competences expected in an information society. Commonly used in secondary education in Germany, this method was revised and detailed in the late 1990s and began to be used in higher education (Grzega & Schöder, 2008). The basis of this method, which can be considered as a special type of peer education, is based on the idea that the responsibility of teaching should be undertaken by students for teaching their own classmates (Legenhausen, 2005). This scenario adopts the concept of controlling all processes of a lesson by the learners (Hanbay, 2009; Serindag, 2007), and students are given the opportunity to prepare all or part of a lesson (Grzega & Schöder, 2008). The method is considered to be an individual and social learning style, which is student-centered for the learning and teaching activities of students (Karakaya, 2007). In learning by teaching, the role of the student is to teach a topic that the teacher suggests, or a topic of their own choice, with a group of students (preferably three) by methodically encouraging classmate participation and enabling communication between them. At this point, the students are not expected to present the topic directly, and learning by teaching should not be confused with student presentations or lectures. Students are not expected to transfer the content to their classmates, but rather they are expected to define their own methods and teaching approaches as well as implement them in order to teach the topic. Students who do the teaching need to learn ways to motivate and ensure that their messages and the topic being taught are understood by their classmates. Therefore, students must use various approaches and educational tools, not just a direct presentation (Ahmed, 2013; Grzega & Schöder, 2008; Lernen durch Lehren, 2015). …

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