Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

A Meta-Analytic Study concerning the Effect of Computer- Based Teaching on Academic Success in Turkey

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

A Meta-Analytic Study concerning the Effect of Computer- Based Teaching on Academic Success in Turkey

Article excerpt

It is known that a number of countries regard education as crucial for improving their current situation in every respect and moving it a step further in the information age of the 21st Century. In this context, the developments which have occurred in information technology have given students fast and easy access to information, which has made a great contribution to education systems (Aslan, 2006, p. 122). These developments have also enabled audio-visual aids such as animations and simulations to be used commonly in educational contexts. As a result of the applications of information and communication technologies in education systems, computer-based teaching (CBT) has emerged (Mayer & Moreno, 2002, p. 107; Serin, 2011, p. 183). CBT has been defined in a variety ways, such as educational contents or activities being conveyed through the computer (Hannafin & Peck, 1989 as cited in Güven & Sülün, 2012, p. 69) or benefiting from computer technologies to carry out educational activities such as presenting course contents, reinforcing what has been learned, or solving problems (Camnalbur, 2008, p. 9). According to Chojo, Anthony, Oghigian, and Uchibori (2012, p. 133) and Saminathan (2012, p. 166), CBT is a teaching and learning option that involves an educational dialogue between computer and student. However, the computer which is used to teach should be regarded as a complementary and supportive part of the educational process, not as an alternative to the teacher. Park and Hannafin (1993 as cited in Somyürek & Yalin, 2007) indicated that education systems are functional as long as they meet students' needs and individual diversities. In this regard, CBT generates techniques and methods with regard to individual diversities, inputs, and information processes by providing good opportunities during the teaching process and enabling a change of expectations in the context of learning (p. 588). Additionally, a number of studies (Abu-Seileek & Rababah, 2007; Bakar, 2007; Cavalier & Klein, 1998; Lee, 2012) have confirmed that students' academic success has increased through the use of computers which provide rich content and visual-based applications. In this context, many studies have been conducted to increase academic success. However, îçman (2001, p. 21) stressed that many factors need to be taken into account, such as a school's financial situation, teachers' general characteristics, target behaviors, clear and specific program licenses, the most convenient placement of computers in laboratories in regard to windows, light, temperature, cleaning, and so on. Meta-analytical studies concerning CBT in the national and international arena were examined and their results are also provided in this study. It was seen in the meta-analysis concerning computer-based teaching of foreign language by Tomakin and Ye§ilyurt (2013) that foreign language teaching, which makes use of CBT, has a significant advantage. On the whole, the effect of technology on students' success turned out to be greater than expected in the meta-analytic study concerning the effect of the use of technology on the teaching and learning process in students' success by Cheung and Slavin (2011).

On the other hand, it was seen that there were significant differences between students who got their training thorough CBT and those who had not with regard to course acquisitions in some studies dealing with the effect of CBT on students' success (Kiyici & Yumuçak, 2005, p. 131). Buchanan (2000 as cited in Zhang, Duan, Fu, Wang, & Zhang, 2010) particularly stressed that the CBT approach had caused a change in teachers' and students' roles from traditional teaching and learning methods to being more active and individualistic. Lowe (2004, p. 53) got more successful results when he compared it to the traditional teaching approach. We understand that computers present rich content, enabling students to be more enthusiastic with learning, to practice more, and to retain more permanent learning (Young, 2003). …

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