Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

The Level of Distress among the Victims of War and Terrorism and the Role of Psychological Interventions in Their Rehabilitation

Academic journal article Pakistan Journal of Criminology

The Level of Distress among the Victims of War and Terrorism and the Role of Psychological Interventions in Their Rehabilitation

Article excerpt

Introduction

Since time immemorial, especially the twentieth century, the world has experienced terrorism in different forms, faces and with varying different expressions. Therefore, we know that terrorism is not a modern trend. Undoubtedly, a terrorism disaster (whether an attack like that of 9/11 in 2001 or a natural event such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, earthquake of Pakistan in 2005) have caused tremendous damage to individuals (e.g., buildings, roads, factories) and humans (e.g., injuries, deaths). The twentieth century seems to be the century of massive sufferings in human history, manifests a persistent increase in malicious and destructive activities. Yet, this was not the main challenge for the international community, until the hijack of aeroplanes and the attacks of 9/11 on the towers of World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the main symbols of American economic and military supremacy (Musarrat, 2009).

Method

Participants

The targeted sample for the present study was drawn from the two mediumsized districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is divided into 24 districts. The study included sample from District Buner and District Swat. Convenient sampling technique was used. The sample consisted of 200 adults (N=200), with the representation of both men and women from all walks of life. Further, two hundred sample (N=200) was divided into two groups. One hundred (n=100) were male respondents and one hundred (n=100) were female respondents from Swat and Buner. 100 respondents each from the two districts further equally divided between male respondents and female respondents. Average age of the sample was 40 years.

Instruments

For this research one information sheet and instrument were used namely Data Information Sheet (DIS) and The Impact of Event Scale (IES)

1. Demographic Information Sheet (DIS)

Demographic Information sheet was used to get information from the participants. Demographic Information sheet included Name, Gender, Area, Address and Date.

2. Impact of Event Scale (IES)

The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure the current subjective distress related to a specific event (Horowitq, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979). The Impact of Event Scale (IES) consists of 15 items. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) consists of 15 items, 7 of which measure intrusive symptoms (intrusive thoughts, nightmares, intrusive feelings and imagery), 8 tap avoidance symptoms (numbing of responsiveness, avoidance of feelings, situations, ideas), and combining provide a total subjective stress score. Corcoran and Fisher (1994) found that the sub scales of the IES show very good internal consistency based on 2 separate sample groups. The coefficients ranged from .79 to .92, with an average of .86 for the intrusive sub scale and .90 for the avoidance subscale.

Horowitz' Impact of Event Scale (IES; Horowitz Horowitz et al, 1979) was created for the study of bereaved individuals, but soon it was used for exploring the psychological impact of a variety of traumas. It was constructed before the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was entered into the DSM III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980), and although many measures of PTSD symptoms have emerged (Wilson & Keane, 1997), the IES remains widely used.

Procedure

The sample of two hundred (N=200) participants were selected by using conveniently sampling technique from different areas of District Swat and District Buner. The sample was divided into two groups, hundred were males (n=100) and hundred were females (n=100). Fifty male (n1=50) and fifty female (n2=50) participants from District Swat and fifty male (n3=50) and fifty females (n4=50) from District Buner were selected. Criteria for selection of sample was convenient sampling technique.

Participants were approached at different mental health team clinics run by different non-governmental organization. …

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