Academic journal article International Journal of English Linguistics

Universal Properties of Human Language in the Light of Natural Phenomena

Academic journal article International Journal of English Linguistics

Universal Properties of Human Language in the Light of Natural Phenomena

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

The theoretical background of the article is based on some considerations which were underlined in the works of distinguished linguists (R. Jacobson). Thus, it was revealed that genetic code resembles linguistic code from structural and functional point of view. It should be noted that the fact of unconsciousness is not only the fact that is expressed in structural mechanism of language on the model of the genetic code but it is also observed in different creative activities, such as in ancient Chinese philosophers special system of transformation of four binary elements, N. Y. Marr's theory of glottogonic processes, Hippocrate's system with four liguids (Gamkralidze, 1988).

The act of unconsciousness further is observed in creative activity of ancient craftsmen who created geometrical ornaments imitating the structural formation of crystal substances. The act of consciousness is also observed in weaving of carpets, rugs etc. (Mammadov, 1981). The act of consciousness can be found in "creative activity" of bees and spider whose honeycomb and cobweb resemble rhythmically arranged geometrical figures. The similarity between language and geology were underlined and became unexpected to the participants of the conference held in Bad Homburg (Germany) in 1989 which dedicated to the problem of "Language and earth" (Jacob, 1977).

Thus, without going into detail we may say that there is close connection between the general law of human language and geological, biological processes.

2. Research Methodology

We have used in this article direct observation, structural isomorphism, comparative, linguistic description, transformation, logical-heuristic methods.

3. Scope of the Study

The problem of isomorphism of genetic and linguistic codes has remained in the focus of attention of Roman Jacobson for a long time. (6) He proposed an original solution of this problem which emerged in the juncture of comparatively new scientific disciplines-semiology and molecular genetics. The discovery of the mechanism of heredity in molecular biology revealed that heredity corresponds to the information written along chromosomes with a definite kind of chemical "alphabet".

The initial elements or "letters" of this alphabet consist of four chemical radicals (adonin, timin, sitozin, guanin) combined with one another in an endless linear sequence of nucleic acids and create a kind of chemical text of genetic information. Similarly, the sentence is the segment of a definite linguistic text composed of linear sequences of a small number of discrete units-phonemes or letters. In genetic code a separate element of the system is not informative, certain information is composed of special combinations of four initial elements (nucleotides), three of which create the so-called "triplets". Similar to this, in linguistic code the initial units-phonemes are meaningless in isolation, they serve as the basis for organization of definite minimal consequent linear combinations which express a certain content within a given system.

In genetic code the four initial elements in threes make up totally 64 combinations, i.e. the genetic code consists of 64 words out of which three triplets present themselves as "punctuation marks", which identify the beginning and the end of the "sentence" in the long sequence of nucleic acids, and the rest correspond to one out of 20 aminoacids.

Thus, it was revealed that genetic code resembles linguistic code from structural and functional point of view, and it is not accidental that at the very beginning of deciphering genetic code, molecular genetics began to borrow linguistic notions and terminology. At the same time there are cases in linguistics when it also borrows notions and terms from molecular genetics.

The distinguishing feature between linguistic code and genetic code is the number of initial units-phonemes. The combination of phonemes constitutes minimal significant units in language, and this creates redundancy in language which allows correcting or restoring any distortion in the information arising as a result of infringement under the influence of external factors. …

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