Academic journal article International Journal of Islamic Thought

Crescent and Electoral Strength: Islamic Party Portrait of Reform Era in Indonesia

Academic journal article International Journal of Islamic Thought

Crescent and Electoral Strength: Islamic Party Portrait of Reform Era in Indonesia

Article excerpt

Journey of Islamic parties in Indonesia after independence began with Masyumi establishment. Two major Islamic organizations, Nahdhatul Ulama (NU) and Muhammadiyah are the pioneer of Masyumi establishment, November 1945. It was agreed that Masjumi as the sole forum for channeling the aspiration and struggle of Muslims in Indonesia. But in the way, one by one Masyumi supporting element began to leave and set up his own political party. July 1947, PSII (Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia) leftMasyumi and redeclared as an independent political party. Traces of PSII was followed by NU. In 1952, NU was declared out of the Masjumi and proclaimed as a political party as NU Party. In addition, there was other Islamic party dominate in Sumatra; Perti (Pergerakan Tarbiyah Islamiyah).

During parliamentary democracy, the role of Islamic parties coloring democracy and governance. Islamic parties are indispensable part in the formation of the cabinet. Each cabinet formation, the Islamic parties are key element in forming the coalition government. The 1955 election, which is the first election after independence of Indonesia, six Islamic parties were contestant, Masyumi, NU, PSII, Perti, Partai Pesartuan Tharikah Islam (PPTI), and AKUI. 1955 Election result showed Islamic parties did not obtain majority vote. Masyumi gained 20.9% vote, NU gained 18.4% vote, PSII gained 2.0% vote, Perti gained 1.3% vote, PPTI and AKUI each gained 0.2% vote (Feith 1957: 58). Entered a period of Guided Democracy, Islamic parties are forced to support the Nasakom ideology. As a result, Islamic parties split become two, a group that supports the ideology Nasakom that is represented by NU and those who oppose, that is represented by Masyumi. NU entered the circle of power for supporting the ideology Nasakom Soekarno, while Masyumi, for refusing, then dissolved by Sukarno in 1960. With the dissolution of the political power of Islam, Masyumi practically excluded from the arena of power. For, although NU is in the circle of power, it has no role and no power. Observers assume that NU accept Nasakom ideology as opportunistic political stance (Deliar Noer 1987). When the New Order appeared holding the reins of power, the Muslims have great expectations, which will appear back Masyumi. The hope turned out it was just a hope. Because the regime did not allow Masjumi back as a political party. Instead, the regime allowed the establishment of Parmusi. The establishment is also with a note: figures ex-Masyumi prohibited from engaging in the management of the party (Ali & Bakhtiar 1986: 108). Government action did not stop there. For reason of political stability as a prerequisite of economic development, the New Order then restructure the party system. With this policy, the Islamic parties (Persatuan Muslimin Indonesia or Parmusi, NU, PSII and Perti) and other parties (Partai Nasional Indonesia or PNI, Partai Katolik, Partai Kristen Indonesia or Parkindo, and Ikatan Pendukung Kemederkaan Indonesia or IPKI) forced to perform fusion. Four Islamic parties, Parmusi, NU, PSII and Perti join in PPP (United Development Party). Thus, PPP is the only Muslim political power.

The process of marginalization of New Order regime against political Islam apparently continues, by issued "deideologizing" policy. In this policy, the political parties are not allowed to use other principle than the principle of Pancasila. As a result of the policy, the political parties have no other choice. PPP Finally, as the last bastion of Muslim political power, removed and replaced Islamic principles to be Pancasila principles. Likewise with the symbol of "Kaaba" was changed to "Star", in 1985. Star emblem is a symbol of Pancacila first precepts contained in the "body Garuda Pancasila". Substitution PPP ideology and symbol, according to Nasir Tamara, a process of political "deislamization" and "depoliticization" of Islam. After the PPP as the only representation of political Islam forces have stripped the principles of Islam and accepted the principle of Pancasila, historian Taufik Abdullah said that the PPP accept Pancasila as the principle that it is "last page of political Islam in Indonesia" (Tamara 1988). …

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