Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Impact of Interest Groups in United Kingdom, as State Member of European Union

Academic journal article European Journal of Sustainable Development

Impact of Interest Groups in United Kingdom, as State Member of European Union

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

United Kingdom thanks to its geographical position, good connectivity with world, the first appearance of industrial revolution and relatively good base with underground wealth, was the greatest world power and played important role especially in developing of western ideas for Parliamentary Democracy. Economic losses during both world wars as well as denial of her empire reduced her leading role in world affairs. After the Second World War the United Kingdom was depending on American financial help. Therefore the return to the previous role of world leading became impossible also for economic reasons but also political ones. Even though major parties of the country did not follow similar strategies to achieve goals however can be talked about post-war consensus in British politics.

The interest of the post-war conservative governments was initially oriented to the welfare of the state, but also in protecting national traditions and institutions, individual liberty and the limitation of state intervention in the economy (Stephan, 1996). In the seventies, during the government of the Labour Party, the standard of living of the population was significantly improved, but was not achieved notable improvement of economic power of the country in international comparison therefore United Kingdom on those years was considered as the ill state of Europe. With coming to power of the Conservative Party leaded by Margaret Thatcher the economic and social post-war consensus marked end of it. She opposed the power of syndicates and drastically limited their field of action through expanding legislation. The defeat of miners' strike on 1984 represents also the symbolic end of the political power of syndicates and action of their groups of interest. The politics of Thatcher (Beckett, 2006) was transformed into synonymous of a policy which engaged for a form of trade economy preferably free by the state impact but also sceptical towards European integration. Successive election success of Thatcher were not by any means the result of popularity of her social politics but of some other factors as triumph on the War of Falkland (Brown, 1987) leading power, finance and tax politics but especially the weakness of the Labour Party which even in opposition was still influenced by the old ideal of the state welfare. Researcher Grey was harsh in his critics towards politics of Thatcher and her conservatory party. He (Grey, 1994) emphasizes that the British society and institutions were deformed and turned into total servants of conservatory party. The majority of British population was not ready to accept the negative social flow of Thatcher politics. On 1997 the Labour Party successfully exploited this disposal in electoral campaign winning the elections (Heffernan, 2001). The labours' proclaimed the policy which was associated with goals of social justice and the reconciliation of the opposing sides in society. The goal of proclaimed policy was creating of conditions which would make possible for the society, first of all affected individuals, families, social groups, municipalities or interest groups to be able to help themselves.

2. Political system of United Kingdom

United Kingdom, as constitutional monarchy as a head of the state has the Monarch. The politics traditionally is influenced by two-party system (Birch, 1993). Compare to other countries of the European Union it is about much modified election system. Parties in United Kingdom differently from the major part of state members of European Union are not product of the era at the beginning of democratization. The feature lies more on the fact that the parties were accepted as necessary condition for functioning of the parliamentary system of governing, was not perceived as integral and political expression of the society which should be reflected accurately but in a first place were perceived as instruments of governing and the power which make possible sustainable governing and that should bring the appropriate political leaders. …

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