Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

A Comparison between the Effects of Albendazole and Meben Dazole on the Enzymatic Activity of Excretory / Secretory Products of Echinococcus Granulosus Protoscoleces in Vitro

Academic journal article Iranian Journal of Public Health

A Comparison between the Effects of Albendazole and Meben Dazole on the Enzymatic Activity of Excretory / Secretory Products of Echinococcus Granulosus Protoscoleces in Vitro

Article excerpt

Introduction

Echinococcosis or cystic hydatid disease is an endemic parasitic disease in human populations in Iran and some parts of the world. It is caused by larvae stage of Echinococcus granulosus (1). In the life cycle of E. granulosus, humans sometimes play ropes as accidental intermediate host. Clinical treatment of cysts includes albendazole (ABZ) or mebendazole (MBZ) therapy in combination with either surgical resection (2).

The role of enzymes in living organism is clear and remarkable and the worms are seriously dependent on these activities. The deficiency or inhibition of the enzyme activities will prevent parasite survival. Parasite components such as enzymes have specific biological functions, which are necessary for parasite survival and are supposed to have an important role in host-parasite interactions and disease progress (3). Parasite's enzymes are attractive purposes that are be explored for the development of diagnostic method and vaccines. They mediate processes like tissue invasion, feeding, evasion (Escape the immune system) of host immune response etc. (4). Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) is an enzyme, which has a significant role in the detoxification of parasite metabolites (Endogeous), host metabolites (Xenobiotics) and drugs through their conjugation to glutathione (5). GST activity in E. granulosus has been described in the cytosolic portion of protoscoleces obtained from sheep cysts and activated by pre-treatment of protoscoleces with GST inducers (6).

Alkaline phosphates (ALP) is an enzyme that plays an important role in dampening host immune responses and also plays a role in feeding parasites (7). Several isoenzymes of ALP have been detected in worms. Most phosphatases have been found in the absorption system of cestodes, excretory system in trematodes and intestinal cells of the nematode (8). Proteolytic enzymes of parasites have been given more attention than other enzymes, because they play a vital role in parasite survival and are involved in many fundamental physiologic processes (3). The activities of protease described in E. granulosus (9), has been detected in hydatid cyst fluid, cyst wall and in protoscoleces. This enzyme is responsible for breakdown of proteins in all living tissues in order to be used by the cells (10). In addition to their known role in the catabolism, they have a part in protein processing in evasion from immune system, leaving the cyst, molting of the parasites and in diagnosis, especially cysteine proteases as serological markers. Proteases have generally been identified as potential drug targets in parasites (11, 12).

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ABZ and MBZ on the activity of the GST, ALP and proteases in the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst and to evaluate their inhibitory effects on enzyme activity.

Materials and Methods

Collection of Protoscoleces

Protoscoleces were obtained by aseptic puncture from fertile liver hydatid cysts of ovine origin collected from an abattoir in Rey City in Tehran (center of Iran). Protoscoleces were allowed to settle in a 50 ml Falcon tube, and then washed several times in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS pH, 7.2). Viability was determined by eosin 0.01 exclusion analysis and only protoscoleces samples with viability higher than 95% were selected for the assays (13).

MBZ used in this study was obtained from Rouzdarou Pharmaceutical Company (Iran) and ABZ was purchased from Tolide Daruhai Dami Iran Company.

Culture protoscoleces

Five culture medium [RPMI 1640 (Gibco, CET. No:K4111-500), 100U/ml of penicillin and 100µg/ml of streptomycin as 1 ml for each] containing 500µl protoscoleces and 1 µg/ml ABZ and/ MBZ [stock solution 1 mg/ml of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO)] were considered as test groups and 10 culture medium [five culture containing 500 µl protoscoleces with 0.6 µl DMSO, and five culture medium without DMSO] regarded as control groups and were incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 (14). …

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