Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Passive Smoke Exposure and Its Effects on Cognition, Sleep, and Health Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Children

Academic journal article Childhood Obesity

Passive Smoke Exposure and Its Effects on Cognition, Sleep, and Health Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Children

Article excerpt

[Author Affiliation]

Catherine L. Davis. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.

Martha S. Tingen. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.

Jenny Jia. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.

Forrest Sherman. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.

Celestine F. Williams. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.

Kruti Bhavsar. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.

Nancy Wood. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA. 2 Pediatric Associates of Mobile, Mobile, AL.

Jessica Kobleur. 1 Georgia Prevention Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA. 3 University Pediatrics, Memorial University Medical Center, Savannah, GA.

Jennifer L. Waller. 4 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA.

Address correspondence to: Catherine L. Davis, PhD, Georgia Prevention Institute, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, 1120 15th Street, HS-1711, Augusta, GA 30912, E-mail: katiedavisphd@gmail.com

Introduction

Tobacco use remains the leading cause of premature and preventable deaths worldwide, and there is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke.1,2 Of the nearly six million premature deaths caused by tobacco use annually worldwide, more than 480,000 occurred in the US alone, with nearly 42,000 of those deaths in nonsmokers due to passive smoke exposure (PSE).1 Over 40% of children have at least one parent who smokes and, therefore, suffer from PSE.2

Overweight and obesity is another major health concern worldwide, in both adults and children. Obesity rates in US children have reached epidemic proportions.3,4 Childhood obesity is associated with numerous potential adverse health outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk.5 Visceral fat has been shown to be more indicative of cardiometabolic risk in obese children than subcutaneous fat.6

Weitzman and colleagues7 demonstrated that PSE may be a risk factor for overweight and obesity, and metabolic syndrome among adolescents (12-19 years). Some research that examined the relationship between PSE and obesity has reported inconclusive results,8 while other researchers have found a relationship between PSE and obesity, primarily by using maternal self-report measures.9-11 Studies conducted using cotinine measures for smoke exposure in children have found associations of PSE with worse cognition and sleep.12-14 Another study, which measured PSE through maternal self-report, found an association between PSE and neuropsychological deficits in adolescents.15 Yet another study using parent report had inconclusive results on postnatal PSE and neurodevelopment.16

The differences in findings between cotinine-measure PSE and self-report measures may be due to different measurements.17 Thus, to clarify these relationships, we examined associations between both an objective measure of the child's PSE (cotinine) and parent reports of smokers in the home, with precise measurements of adiposity and related health risks, cognitive tests, and a measure of sleep habits to assess the relationship between PSE and children's health.

Methods

Participants

Overweight or obese children (n = 222) aged 7-11 (9.4 ± 1.1 years; 58% black; 58% female; 85% obese) were recruited from public schools near Augusta, Georgia, for a clinical trial between 2003-2006. …

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